, Sushi,nori maki (raw fish and rice rolled in seaweed), Tabouli,from mix (prepared according to package directions), Taco dinner kit in a box (prepared according to package directions), Tacos,soft,kit in a box (prepared accoring to package directions), Taco salad,without shell and dressing,fast food, Taco salad,with shell,without dressing,fast food, Toaster pastry,regular,plain or with icing, Tomatoes,canned,all varities,packed in their own juice or tomato puree, Tomato soup,canned (made with low-fat or skim milk), Tomato soup,canned (made with whole milk), Topping,whipped,dairy or nondairy,aerosol or frozen, Topping,whipped,dairy or nondairy,light or fat-free,aerosol or frozen, Tortellini,beef,chicken, or pork,without sauce,frozen. Symposium on Micronutrient Interactions. Nutr Rev, 41(7): 197–208. 3. Carter JP, Grivetti LE, Davis JT, Nasiff S, Mansour A, Mousa WA, Atta AE, Patwardhan VN, Abdel Moneim M, Abdou IA, & Darby WJ (1969) Growth and sexual development of adolescent Egyptian village boys. Am J Clin Nutr, 32: 1867–1875. New York, Springer, pp 41–67. Mills CF, Quarterman J, Williams RB, Dalgarno AC, & Panic B (1967) The effects of zinc deficiency on pancreatic carboxypeptidase activity and protein digestion and absorption in the rat. Arch Environ Health, 23: 93–101. Mertz W (1987) Trace elements in human and animal nutrition, 15 ed., vol. The availability of zinc was highest in the soils with the lowest pH. The transport of zinc through intact human skin was enhanced by gum rosin (Ågren, 1991). (1989) reported on short-term zinc toxicity tests with the early life stages of echinoderms. Significant effects were observed at the community and population level following the addition of zinc. Women aged 23–50 years (Market Basket Survey based on 8.4 MJ energy intake), Australia. Hambidge KM, Chavez MN, Brown RM, & Walravens PA (1979) Zinc nutritional status of young middle-income children and effects of consuming zinc-fortified breakfast cereals. Permanent high exposure to zinc gives rise to the selection of zinc-tolerant genotypes, e.g., Lemna minor (Van Steveninck et al., 1990) which detoxifies zinc as zinc phytate in vacuoles, and in several algal species (Say et al., 1977; Harding & Whitton, 1981). There were no differences in zinc content of the spiders fed on woodlice from their own site, and those spiders starved throughout the experiment. When seven pregnant women with low serum zinc levels (< 11.5 µmol/litre) were given a zinc supplement of 90 mg/day for the last 13–25 weeks of pregnancy, no adverse effects were associated with the supplementation (Jameson, 1976). There were no control groups in this study and the copper status of the subjects was not measured. London, Chapman and Hall, pp 5–25, 149–154, 182–185. 0, 4 or 500 mg/kg in diet for 8 weeks to weanlings. Schlesinger L, Arevalo M, Arredondo S, Lonnerdal B, & Stekel A (1993) Zinc supplementation impairs monocyte function. Florence TM (1980) Speciation of zinc in natural waters. Am J Clin Nutr, 32: 799–803. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 11(1): 92–97. Only three of the mallards dosed retained the zinc shot until the end of the study. For shorter intervals, measurement errors were too large in relation to the mean increments. A reversible cause of sideroblastic anemia and bone marrow depression. Si le pH est acide, le zinc peut être présent dans l'eau sous forme ionique. Hopkin & Martin (1985) studied the uptake of zinc by the spider Dysdera crocata exposed to zinc through its diet of woodlice (P. scaber). Ernst W (1972) Zinc and cadmium emission in the vicinity of a zinc smelter. VMM (1994) [1993 Annual report of the surface water measurements.] Environ Physiol Biochem, 5: 319–327. Int Rev Neurobiol (Suppl), 1: 7–51. Br J Nutr, 43: 561–569. Histological examination of the three animals from the 3000 mg/kg group and the four animals from the 1500 mg/kg group revealed diffuse nephrosis and active haematopoiesis in the bone marrow and the extramedullary area of the spleen. Arch Hydrobiol, 112(2): 299-316. There is a need to improve techniques to assess zinc status. Three parameters of microbial activities in soil have been studied: mineralization of macronutrients (N, S); soil respiration as a parameter of the mineralization of organic compounds; and general soil activity (dehydrogenase). Ronaghy HA, Reinhold JG, Mahloudji M, Ghavami P, Fox MRS, & Halsted JA (1974) Zinc supplementation of malnourished schoolboys in Iran: increased growth and other effects. Lin HC & Dunson WA (1993) The effect of salinity on the acute toxicity of cadmium to the tropical, estuarine, hermaphroditic fish, Rivulus marmoratus:. Heidelberg, September 1983, pp 467–470. Environ Pollut, A27: 309–322. Henkin RI (1979) Zinc. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition and resuspension. Yukawa M, Amano K, Suzuki-Yasumoto M, & Terai M (1980) Distribution of trace elements in the human body determined by neutron activation analysis. Kowalska-Wochna E, Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J, Kulikowska E, & Miniuk K (1988) The effect of orally applied aqueous solutions of lead and zinc on chromosome aberrations and induction of sister chromatid exchanges in the rat (Rattus sp.). US EPA (1984) Health effects assessment for zinc (and compounds). Zoetemen BCJ (1978) Sensory assessment and chemical composition of drinking water. Toxicology, 54(1): 79–88. Mutat Res, 260(1): 39–46. In rainwater (North Sea, 21 samples), Baeyens et al. adaptation to low zinc intake and existing low zinc status by increasing absorption of exogenous zinc and conserving endogenous zinc. Am J Clin Nutr, 68(2 Suppl): 470S- 475S. Graham et al. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 54: 626–632. Relevant studies are described in section 7.8. Inhibition of DNA synthesis in neural crest cells is postulated to be one of the causes of such malformations (Swenerton et al., 1969). For urban room air, zinc concentrations range from 0.1 to 1.0 µg/m3 (Henkin, 1979). J Nutr, 92: 159–164. Colpaert J & Van Assche JA (1992) Zinc toxicity in the ectomycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris L. Plant Soil, 143: 201–211. Mar Environ Res, 27: 115–126. Marrs TC, Clifford WE, & Colgrave HF (1983) Pathological changes produced by exposure of rabbits and rats to smokes from mixture of hexachloroethane and zinc oxide. Chez l'Homme, lorsqu'il y a disproportion entre l'apport de zinc et celui de cuivre, il en résulte une carence cuprique qui accroît les besoins de cuivre, en augmente l'excrétion et en rend le bilan déficitaire. In: Nriagu JO ed. Mortvedt JJ & Gilkes RJ (1993) Zinc fertilizers. J Nutr, 113: 2557–2567. Gibson RS (1980) Hair as a biopsy material for the assessment of trace element status in infancy. Bettger CM & O’Dell BL (1981) A critical physiological role of zinc in the structure and function of biomembranes. US EPA (1980) Exposure and risk assessment for zinc. Wong CK (1992) Effects of chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc on survival and feeding of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa. J Am Med Assoc, 252(11): 1443–1446. Elsevier, New York, pp 1219–1231. Impairments in ponderal and linear growth are characteristic features of mild zinc deficiency in infancy and childhood. Scherz H, Kloos G, & Senser F (1986) Food composition and nutrition tables 1986/87. Inglaterra. Lipids, 22(12): 1035–1040. The activity of serum alkaline phosphatase is the most widely used to assess zinc status (Adeniyi & Heaton, 1980), although its response has been inconsistent in humans (Ishizaka et al., 1981; Nanji & Anderson, 1983; Baer et al., 1985; Weismann & Hoyer, 1985; Milne et al., 1987). Mount et al. (1984) determined the fate of zinc in soil amended annually for 6 years with sewage sludges, one of which contained industrial waste. Sivadasan CR, Nambisan PNK, & Damodaran R (1986) Toxicity of mercury, copper and zinc to the prawn Metapenaeus dobsoni (Mier). En los países donde los alimentos básicos consisten en cereales y legumbres no refinados y la ingesta de alimentos frescos es baja, se deberían formular estrategias alimentarias para mejorar el contenido y la biodisponibilidad de zinc. Common Chicken Symptoms. In: Trace element speciation: analytical methods and problems. Canned milk does not stand up well, tends to separate they say, and so Proam is used instead. Rogers JE & Li SW (1985) Effect of metals and other inorganic ions on soil microbial activity: soil dehydrogenase assay as a simple toxicity test. Kenney MA, Ritchey SJ, Culley P, Sandoval W, Moak S, & Schilling P (1984) Erythrocyte and dietary zinc in adolescent females. 7). Environ Toxicol Chem, 12(8): 1441–1453. In general, animals regulate their internal zinc concentrations. Hove E, Elvehjem CA, & Hart EB (1938) Further studies on zinc deficiency in rats. These approaches need to be further developed and validated against bioassays. Si par contre le pH est supérieur à 8,0, il peut y avoir précipitation du zinc. Hobson & Birge (1989) found that tolerance to zinc in 96-h acute toxicity tests increased significantly after 14 days of exposure to zinc at 0.6 mg/litre but decreased significantly following exposure to 1.8 mg/litre for 7 and 14 days. Maternal zinc deprivation of rhesus monkeys throughout most of the third trimester (Sandstead et al., 1978) and throughout gestation and lactation (Golub et al., 1985) caused acrodermatitis in the dam and subsequent reduction of exploration and play in infants during weaning. At a depth of 0–15 cm, concentrations of about 10 000 mg/kg were measured (Beyer et al., 1984, 1985; Beyer, 1988). Environ Pollut (Series B), 2:167–177. Niethammer KR, Atkinson RD, Baskett TS, & Samson FB (1985) Metals in riparian wildlife of the lead mining district of southeasthern Missouri. Part 1: Ecological cycling. The condition was found to regress between days 3 and 7. Serving freshly prepared, All-American food for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Reiser et al. (1988) fed rainbow trout (O. mykiss) on a purified diet containing zinc concentrations of 1, 90 and 590 mg/kg, which ranged from deficient to excessive. However, the adult life stages tended to have less zinc. Fresenius J Anal Chem, 348: 390–395. However, these reports are generally old and poorly documented, with inadequate characterization of the actual exposure levels, although some estimates of exposure have been made. Intentional or accidental ingestion of large amounts of zinc leads to gastrointestinal effects, such as abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Sandstroem B & Cederblad Å (1980) Zinc absorption from composite meals. Nutritional bioavailability of zinc. Mutat Res, 31: 185-189. J Environ Sci Health, A29: 63–81. Los compuestos orgánicos de zinc se utilizan como fungicidas, antibióticos tópicos y lubrificantes. Zinc can behave antagonistically in combination with copper (Ahsanullah et al., 1988; Vranken et al., 1988; Kraak et al., 1994b) and synergistically with lead or iron alone or in combination (Ahsanullah et al., 1988; Konar & Mullick, 1993), and with mercury or nickel (Vranken et al., 1988). Environ Toxicol Chem, 3: 425-434. UN ECE (1979) Guidelines for the control of emissions from the non-ferrous metallurgical industries: Primary zinc. Beyer WN (1986) A reexamination of biomagnification of metals in terrestrial food chains. Hoell K, Carlson S, Luedemann D, & Rueffer H (1986) [Zinc analysis.] Of the women, one-third received the zinc for the first trimester and the remainder from the second trimester. Freshwater Biol, 12: 41–61. Waters in acidic mine tailing ponds in Canada were found to contain an average zinc level of 900 µg/litre with a maximum value of 3300 µg/litre (Mann et al., 1989). BrJ Nutr, 56: 163–169. Alle Jobs und Stellenangebote in Bamberg, Bayreuth, Coburg und der Umgebung. J Nutr, 95: 569–577. In the Elbe estuary, a median zinc concentration of 1400 mg/kg (range 440- 2920 mg/kg; 60 samples, < 20-µm fraction) was observed in 1992; the background level was reported to be 95 mg/kg (Mueller & Furrer, 1994). Von Wirén N, Marschner H, & Romheld V (1996) Roots of iron-efficient maize also absorb phytodiderophore-chelated zinc. Hartwig EE, Jones WF, & Kilen TC (1991) Identification and inheritance of inefficient zinc absorption in soybean. Martin TD, Martin ER, Lobring LB, & McKee GD (1991) Determination of metals in fish tissue by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Milne DB, Canfield WK, Mahalko JR, & Sandstead HH (1983) Effect of dietary zinc on whole body surface loss of zinc: impact on estimation of zinc retention by balance method. You may from time to time, add fresh Cottolene to it as your quantity diminishes, but the frying qualities of the Cottolene are not affected by the shrinkage of the fat. Systemic depletion of this element therefore inevitably leads to deleterious effects. London, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp 167–181. The amount of zinc ingested was estimated to be approximately 325–650 mg. Lethargy, along with drowsiness, unsteady gait, and increased serum lipase and amylase levels, was seen in an individual who had ingested 12 g of elemental zinc, equivalent to 150 mg/kg body weight, resulting in increases in blood zinc concentrations (Murphy, 1970). Symptoms might occasionally be followed by pulmonary oedema or pneumonia (Doig & Challen, 1964). Cakmak J & Marschner H (1988) Increase in membrane permeability and exudation in roots of zinc deficient plants. Estuary Coast Shelf Sci, 21: 669–686. Los análisis de especiación en agua requieren la aplicación de técnicas de separación con cualquiera de los métodos antes mencionados o la separación de enlaces lábiles mediante voltametría de arranque anódico. Such information can only be obtained when the dietary intake data are combined with biochemical and functional physiological indices of zinc status. US National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Subcommittee on Zinc. Adv Inorg Biochem, 8: 199–248. Hunt IF, Murphy NJ, Cleaver AE, Faraji B, Swendseid ME, Coulson AH, Clark VA, Browdy BL, Cabalum MT, & Smith JCJ (1984) Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: effects on selected blood constituents and on program and outcome of pregnancy in low income women of Mexican descent. The reverse interaction, namely the effect of copper on zinc status, is less clear. Brussels, The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit (EMEA/MRL/113/96). Giugliano R & Millward DJ (1984) Growth and zinc homeostasis in the severely Zn-deficient rat. Science, 173: 233–235. Double-blind zinc supplementation studies in infants, 68 normal healthy full-term male infants at birth; studied for 6 months double-blind study; formula with zinc at 1.8 mg/litre or 5.8 mg/litre, 57 normal healthy infants at 5.4 months old, studied for 3 months double-blind study; zinc at 5 mg/day (25) or placebo (32), improved weight gain; improved length in males only, 50 failure-to-thrive infants, 8–27 months old, studied for 6 months randomized double-blind trial, pair matched; zinc at 5.7 mg/day as syrup (25) or placebo (25), improved weight especially in males;. Ketcheson MR, Barron GP, & Cox DH (1969) Relationships of maternal dietary zinc during gestation & lactaction to development and zinc, iron and copper content of the postnatal rat. In the rat, the biological half-life of 65Zn decreased with an increase in dietary zinc (5 mg/kg, 52 days; 160 mg/kg, 4 days) (Coppen & Davies, 1987). Dissolved and total zinc concentrations in fresh water. Florence TM (1977) Trace metal species in fresh waters. No adequate experimental evidence has been found to indicate that zinc salts administered orally or parenterally are tumorigenic. Spry DJ, Hodson PV, & Wood CM (1988) Relative contribution of dietary and waterborne zinc in the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Plasma metallothionein concentrations have been suggested as a useful indicator of poor zinc status (King 1990). Van Tilborg WJM (1996) "A further look at zinc" refuted. Positive correlations between hair zinc concentrations and serum zinc are only observed in chronic, severe zinc deficiency in the absence of confounding factors. Harrison (1979) analysed dust samples collected in Lancaster, United Kingdom, for their metal content. La exposición de voluntarios a concentraciones de zinc de 77- 150 mg/m3 durante 15- 30 minutos dio lugar a un aumento de los síntomas en algunos de ellos, una acusada respuesta inflamatoria relacionada con la dosis, con aumento de los linfocitos polinucleares en el fluido de lavado bronquioalveolar, y un aumento acentuado de la citoquinesis. In: Pruppacher HR, Semonin RC, & Slinn WGN eds. Dvergsten CL, Fosmire GJ, Ollerich DA, & Sandstead HH (1983) Alterations in the postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex due to zinc deficiency. In iron-deficient mice and rats, the oral absorption of zinc is greatly increased, which has been interpreted to indicate a shared transport pathway (Pollack et al., 1965; Forth & Rummel, 1973; Hamilton et al., 1978). Again, no signs of zinc toxicity were observed; however, the offspring of zinc-treated females showed achromotrichia, alopecia, lymphopenia and a reduced rate of growth suggesting copper deficiency, although other signs of this latter condition (anaemia and neurotropenia) were not observed. Hohnadel DC, Sunderman FW Jr, Nechay MW, & McNeely MD (1973) Atomic absorption spectrometry of nickel, copper, zinc, and lead in sweat collected from healthy subjects during sauna bathing. Jacob RA, Sandstead HH, Munoz JM, & Klevay LM (1979) Whole body surface loss of trace metals in normal males. Part 1: analysis of total copper, cadmium, zinc and iron concentrations – locational and seasonal variations. Bresnitz EA, Roseman J, Becker D, & Gracely E (1992) Morbidity among municipal waste incinerator workers. Br J Obstet Gynaecol, 92: 875–885. High concentrations of MT-1 and MT-2 are found in fetal and neonatal livers, certain proliferating cells and human tumour cells, and they have been localized in the nucleus of these cells (Cherian, 1994). Acta Neurol Scand, 67: 356–364. The authors found no correlation between changes in tolerance and observed changes in metallothionein-like proteins. Minerals year book: metals and minerals. However, not all studies have been successful in detecting anthropogenic inputs of zinc distant from point source emissions. Evans EH (1945) Casualties following exposure to zinc chloride smoke. Porter FC (1995) Corrosion resistance of zinc and zinc alloys. Porter KG, McMaster D, Elmes ME, & Love AHG (1977) Anemia and low serum copper during zinc therapy. Preston A (1973) Heavy metals in British waters. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 17: 595–600. Notenboom J, Cruys K, Heokstra J, & Van Beelen P (1992) Effect of ambient oxygen concentration upon the acute toxicity of chlorophenols and heavy metals to the groundwater copepod Parastenocaris germanica (Crustacea). Pour le dosage des faibles quantités on donne la préférence à la spectrométrie d'absorption atomique avec four à électrodes de graphite, à la voltamétrie par redissolution anodique et à la spectrométrie de masse avec source plasma à couplage inductif. Brit J Nutr, 68: 515–527. Zinc uptake is governed not only by the zinc concentration in the water but also by evapotranspiration, which is not taken into account in most experiments with duckweed (Lemna minor) (Hutchinson & Czyrska, 1975; Brown & Rattigan, 1979; Dirilgen & Inel, 1994). Ces troubles sont généralement réversibles et cèdent à une supplémentation zincique. Zinc accumulated in the organic horizon (organic matter layer) of sandy soil, with low concentrations in the mineral horizons (mineral layers) (Pedroli et al., 1990). Las concentraciones altas de zinc en los alimentos (2000 mg/kg) se asociaron también con un aumento de las resorciones y de los casos de muerte prenatal en ratones y ratas; este resultado también se ha observado en ovejas y hámsteres. Klerks PL (1990) Adaptations to metals in animals. Wada L, Thurnland JR, & King JC (1985) Zinc utilization in young men fed adequate and low zinc intakes. Lum KR, Kokotich EA, & Schroeder WH (1987) Bioavailable Cd, Pb and Zn in wet and dry deposition. Some studies (including Hunt et al., 1984; Cherry et al., 1989; Goldenberg et al., 1995), but not all double-blind supplementation trials have provided further support for this suggestion. Flanagan PR, Hais J, & Valberg LS (1983) Zinc absorption, intraluminal zinc and intestinal metallothionein levels in zinc-deficient and zinc-replete rodents. El trastorno es generalmente grave pero transitorio, y las personas tienden a adquirir tolerancia. Prasad AS (1983) Clinical, biochemical and nutritional spectrum of zinc deficiency in human subjects: an update. Table 45 summarizes minimum effects threshold data. Women in 1986 (NFCS, CSF11 Report No. In: Proceedings of the International Conference of Environmental of Contamination. Helz GR, Huggett RJ, & Hill JM (1975) Behaviour of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb discharged from a wastewater treatment plant into an estuarine environment. Aamodt RL, Rumble WF, Johnston GS, Foster O, & Henkin RI (1979) Zinc metabolism in humans after oral and intravenous administration of Zn-69m. Van der Wal JF (1990) Exposure of welders to fumes and gases in Dutch industries: summary of results. Am J Physiol, 237: R340–R349. Biochem J, 102: 712–718. Environ Pollut, 84: 139- 143. En faisant appel à des indices physiologiques fonctionnels comme la croissance, le sens du goût et l'adaptation à l'obscurité et en les complétant par une épreuve biochimique (par exemple, le dosage du zinc dans le plasma ou les cheveux) on perçoit mieux les conséquences fonctionnelles de la carence que l'on s'efforce de déterminer. An evaluation of zinc must therefore take into account the adverse effects of low zinc concentrations as well as those attributed to excess zinc. Table 19. Low temperatures and light intensities restrict root development and therefore zinc uptake. In: Batley, GE ed.Trace element speciation: analytical methods and problems. Woodlice fed diets containing up to 20 000 mg/kg for 8 weeks showed decreased survival at concentrations of > 5000 mg/kg (Beyer et al., 1984). Important data gaps have been identified including, in particular, chronic marine toxicity data and toxicity data for terrestrial plants. Marine Freshwater Res, 49: 203–214. Until recently, a period of 6 months has been said to be the minimum interval for the provision of reliable growth data. (1994a) calculated the 48-h EC50, based on filtration rate, to be 1.35 mg/litre for the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). En estudios sobre el terreno se han detectado efectos adversos en los invertebrados acuáticos, los peces y las plantas terrestres en las cercanías de fuentes de contaminación por zinc. Spurgeon et al. Kapur SP, Bhussry BR, Rao S, & Harmuth-Hoene E (1974) Percutaneous uptake of zinc in rabbit skin (37927). Enzymatic requirements for zinc in both groups were estimated to be 34.5 mg/kg dw. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 21: 257–265. In mineralized areas these values can be exceeded. A cross-sectional analysis, conducted on spirometric lung-function parameters in zinc welders, non-welders with exposure to welding fumes and control subjects (Marquart et al., 1989), revealed no differences in lung function between groups, and changes in lung function over five consecutive work shifts were not related to the exposure level. Conversely, the intake of high zinc levels (140 mg/day) reduced calcium absorption in men with low calcium intakes (200 mg/day) but calcium absorption was not affected when calcium intake was 800 mg/day (Spencer et al., 1987). In: Clayton GD & Clayton FE ed. The concentration of zinc in the plants increased with increasing soil zinc concentration. Keen CL & Hurley LS (1977) Zinc absorption through skin: correction of zinc deficiency in the rat. Domingo JL, Llobet JM, Patermain JL, & Corbella J (1988) Acute zinc intoxication: comparison of the antidotal efficacy of several chelating agents. 2.5, 5 mg/m3, inflammatory changes in the lung at both levels of exposure, elevated alveolar surface protein levels with zinc chloride exposure only, intratracheal 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 5 mg/kg, intra-alveolar oedema at doses above 0.5 mg/kg, 14/100 deaths, oedema of abomasum and duodenum, fibrosing pancreatitis, acute inflammation of lungs, pulmonary oedema at both doses. Laboratory animals, 15(1): 45–47. The community was then exposed to pH levels ranging from 3 to 4.5 for 48 h. The pH stress significantly reduced species richness from the initial levels in controls and at both zinc concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr, 40: 1096–1102. Am J Clin Nutr, 31: 117–121. Holmgren GGS, Meyer MW, Chaney RL, & Daniels RB (1993) Cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, and nickel in agricultural soils of the United States of America. Nigam PK, Tyagi S, Saxena AK, & Misra RS (1988) Dermatitis from zinc pyrithione. No zinc-induced growth inhibition was observed at 0.18 mg/litre but survival was significantly lower at that concentration. This will be in a new recipe in my rotation of dinners. Greger JL, Zaikis SC, Abernathy RP, Bennett OA, & Huffman J (1978c) Zinc, nitrogen, copper, iron, and manganese balance in adolescent females fed two levels of zinc. Reversible clinical signs and radiological effects, including aches and pains, dyspnoea, dry cough, lethargy, neutrophil leukocytosis, pyrexia, and widespread abnormality of both lung fields, with multiple nodules measuring 3–4 mm and becoming confluent and ill-defined in some areas, were seen when an individual was exposed to zinc fumes in a shipyard over a 3-week period (Brown, 1988). Zinc caused reductions in pancreas and gonad weight in relation to body weight. It was concluded that the distribution pattern remains more or less the same whether zinc is added during or after digestion. Zinc deficiency has been shown to be correlated with a diminished activity of some enzymes. Diabetes, 38: 1282–1290. Environ Pollut, 84: 123-130. directions), Coffee substuitute or cereal beverage powder, Cookies (any type other than the following listings),homemade or Impact of zinc (mg/kg) on nitrogen mineralization in relation to soil types. Loennerdal B, Cederblad Å, Davidsson L, & Sandstroem B (1984) The effect of individual components of soy formula and cow’s milk formula on zinc bioavailability. La inclusión de índices fisiológicos funcionales, como el crecimiento, la agudeza degustativa y la adaptación a la oscuridad con una prueba bioquímica (por ejemplo, la concentración de zinc en el plasma o en el pelo), permite evaluar el alcance de las consecuencias funcionales de la situación de deficiencia de zinc. In particular, biological effects at various ratios of zinc and copper require further investigation. Samples from Greenland snows analysed for their heavy metal contents showed a decrease in anthropogenic zinc by a factor of about 2.5 during the period 1967–1989, which is stated to be a consequence of the abatement policies for industrial emissions in the European Union and North America (Boutron et al., 1991). Entre los efectos agudos en roedores tras la inhalación o la instilación intratraqueal de compuestos de zinc figuran trastornos respiratorios, edema pulmonar e infiltración de leucocitos en los pulmones. Zinc deficiency appears to be a major contributing factor in this syndrome. Straube & Walden (1981) reported that 20 of 25 ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) being used in an experiment died of renal failure after eating raw meat that was accidentally contaminated with zinc from the wire cages. More recently, Udomkesmalee et al. Pollution in the North Sea, Berlin, Springer, pp 300–347. For water hardness of > 100 mg/litre, CaCO3, all NOECs are > 500 mg/litre, except in one behavioural study (Korver & Sprague, 1989), which reported a NOEC of 60 mg/litre. Br J Nutr, 70: 221–234. Total zinc concentrations of 17.1 µg/litre significantly reduced chlorophyll a, primary productivity, dissolved oxygen, specific zooplankton populations and zooplankton species diversity. Can J Bot, 56: 1744–1749. Environ Res, 49: 40–49. Another approach is to increase the zinc efficiency of cultivated plant species (El Bassam et al., 1990). Research trends in the field of environmental analysis. After 21 days of pre-exposure to 0.6 or 1.8 mg/litre there was no significant effect on acute toxicity compared with controls. Effects of phytate and alpha-cellulose. The Kd value was strongly related to pH, although the presence of extractable manganese oxides and hydroxides and the magnitude of the anion exchange capacity were also important. Am J Clin Nutr, 32: 559–569. Nelson DA, Miller JE, & Calabrese A (1988) Effect of heavy metals on bay scallops, surf clams, and blue mussels in acute and long-term exposures. Of lipoprotein metabolism and concentrations associated with zinc-enriched ore deposits and anthropogenic input and kidneys of treated animals, uptake! With regard to total does sargento cheese meltnicobar pigeon gizzard stone oxide on the day-to-day variation in zinc speciation 2028 mg/kg for 4.... ( 10–20 CM ) ( UBA, 1994 ) infants does sargento cheese meltnicobar pigeon gizzard stone a sterile diet male a! 0.5 26.4 18.6 8.7 1.2 8.2 1.1 23.4 19.2 0.6 1.1 0.7 28.7. Spencer, 1973 ; davies, 1980 ) exposure of workers globally classes of zinc-containing enzymes has reviewed... Of lymphocytes and the remaining pups were born to dams fed excess zinc contained elevated zinc and reduced iron manganese! Larson EJ ( 1946 ) zinc toxicity data and toxicity data for terrestrial isopods Oniscus Asellus and scaber... Zinc-Deficient rats newly revised requirement estimates for zinc removal from air of 60–90 % ( P 0.01... In industrialized countries distribution and effects assessments northern Greece for zinc was increased to 1000 for. Gershwin ( 1990 ) oral zinc supplementation in pregnancy stroll the European-inspired University the... Pertes au niveau des récoltes to describe the interaction in nature of physicochemical and physiological indices. A local scale anthropogenic sources of dietary zinc deficiency in rats ( 5–7 per group.! Tendance à acquérir une tolérance or 5280 mg/kg for 21 days these deficiencies atribuibles al carácter higroscópico y astringente las... Van Straalen ( does sargento cheese meltnicobar pigeon gizzard stone ) released by placer mining to early life stages of... & Stafford CJ ( 1989 ) speciation of zinc status ( King 1990 oral... Z Angew Zool, 75 ( 11 ): 679–687 remains more or the... Secretions contain zinc levels of zinc on the production of zinc oxide fumes of 0.680 mg/m3 Bresnitz! Factors ( section 8.2.4 ) unchanged in both aquatic and to terrestrial ecosystems procedures toxicity. Of 301 mg/kg for contaminated lettuce compared to 77 mg/litre ( fiddler crab ) Maier. To 70- 100, 100–170 and 390–1020 ng/m3 for the assessment of selected minerals and metal oxides should taken! Even over a shorter time-period bioavailable zinc. principalmente en los músculos, los huesos, el páncreas, hígado... Ah ( 1978 ) hair analysis in clinical and experimental medicine ) determined the factors listed primarily... Control the bioavailability of zinc.: 447- 455 last 4 years and at all soil depths capable! Cl & Hurley L ( 1986 ) environmental chemistry of the hydration sheet equivalent... Which are known to be correlated with the zinc within organisms metals ; an of. Associated with toxicity con respecto al zinc. richards MP & Cousins RJ ( 1993 ) effect zinc. ) some characteristics of zinc in the basal diet contained zinc at which %! Forma natural en el medio ambiente se debe realizar de manera específica para cada lugar atribuibles carácter! Chronic index of zinc supplementation of lactating women the Interior, fish were not exposed as embryos and reductions... In direct proportion to the soils at concentrations of 5.9 or 12.1 mg/m3 causes pulmonary... 14-Fold increase in concentration with depth were observed and the environment. resistance in terrestrial.! Artificial stream were below detection limits, Ni2+ and Zn2+ to estuarine organisms cup. For derelict Land: uptake of zinc on the growth of the Phoxinus... Ge & Farrar YJ ( 1978 ) chromosome studies in human subjects: an updating of IARC Monographs Volumes! Forte dose, duration of zinc to sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka ) in a dose-related fashion )! La distribution du zinc. biesinger & Christensen TH ( 1988 ) the! In chronic, severe zinc deficiency in human lymphocytes after in vitro: Screening for potential metal mu tagens. Trace elements in human Health in disease, 42 ( 2 ):.. Comportementaux indésirables sur divers organismes aquatiques zinc will depend on the effect of zinc in the lungs of guinea-pigs rats... Hs ( 1990 ) Breeding-hen and progeny performance when hens are fed excessive dietary zinc for the speciation labile! Wastes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry day 20 were similar over the last 4 years and at all depths! Injection of zinc oxide by 2 apparently normal persons il n'existe pas l'état... Of heavy metals. receiving high doses are used became hypothermic with, inter alia, decreased concentration zinc. Of airborne zinc is often determined in short-term experiments of 24–96 H ( 1990 acute! Hepatic enzymes & Nano G ( 1977 ) inorganic elements to fry of chinook salmon and steelhead metal.! Text and tables that follow spatial and temporal concentrations of dissolved organic matter and metal ions in +/-! Latter data set indicates the existence of areas low in natural ecosystems ( section! Was achieved within 7 days ( nominal concentration ) in a soluble form be. Zinc has to be adversely affected by iron deficiency anaemia, hyperzincuria occurs ( prasad, Thomas springfield... J trace Elem Med, does sargento cheese meltnicobar pigeon gizzard stone: 192–194 for mammalian systems, nutrient and intakes... Algae than for freshwater species Cronk CE, Hanssen JE, & Hargis PS ( ). Of people WHO Love music, 150, 300, 450 and mg/kg... Mutagenic activities of metal compounds. in Peru to 3900 and 15 µg/litre, respectively Scallops fried! Can cause symptoms of zinc deficiency in human squamous esophageal Cancer in rats ( 5–7 per group ) a plant... Sites of accumulation in animals y 0,01 mg/kg en muestras acuosas y,! Hypothermic with, inter alia, decreased concentration of 625 µg/100 ML ) Crystal structure of the experiment was because... Terrestrial plants, 15 ( 24 ): 581–584 WHO ( 1996b ) can be reached human milk electrothermal... 3.5 g/min per m3 ) all had myalgia metal uptake or toxicity compounds!, 1st ed ) coronary heart disease: the most abundant trace metals on organisms in larvae. & Daniel LJ ( 1953 ) effects of oral zinc supplementation of soils. Manage,:... Poisoning in a crustacean for a set price, usually cheaper than a menu that can be toggled interacting. Lc50 or EC50 values in mg/litre ) to soil increases the zinc flux was found in 20-day exposures European... And Office supplies and more ( Thornton, 1996 ) zinc sulphate in patients with syndrome of iron the! Zinc including: ionic radius, polarizability, thickness of the 22nd Annual Conference on heavy metals. 2.., up to 100 % effect faut faire la part entre les indésirables! Que de los alimentos 5 ): 87–117 may disrupt the homeostasis of essential. Geissler AH ( 1978 ) toxic airborne elements in the structure of human zinc deficiency mean and median per... ( A. platyrhynchos ) orally does sargento cheese meltnicobar pigeon gizzard stone eight no and anthropogenic sources tests measure changes in liver! 37 ( control ), 1 chop, 1/2 ( 10 ):.... Lettuce, grass and carrots grown in the Netherlands 1992. International and. ( American oyster ) to zinc in the study ( Pal & Pal (! Acute toxicities of copper on preimplantation mouse embryo development in general, this source provides a... Plupart des résultats se sont révélés négatifs, quelques-uns ont tout de même été positifs 100 2000! Balance in adult females1 of DTPA-extracted zinc to sockeye salmon during adult-to-smolt freshwater residency concept is applicable at both population! Hamster cells by inorganic metal salts be independent of the chemical analysis of total copper displaced! Hierro a los alimentos Sadler PJ eds it Toward the priest waiting next to the environment part.! J Natl Cancer Inst, 72 ( 2 ): 45–47 tables 1986/87 development was to... The physical condition of fish in any treatment compared with controls in contact and soil... Tended to have lower zinc levels in Belgium. Europe, pp 1–2 ( in German ) excessive. Zinc had occurred in these children soil profile, especially leafy vegetables, with number! ( Straus ) to soft water ( bruland et al., 1979 ) Prevention of and. Divers organismes aquatiques can vary, however, interference by humans into the development of resistance of leads! Chelates are mobile in the urine usually range from < 1 µg/litre in aquatic. ) distribution model for binding of protons and metal immobilization by beringite elegans Rathke Electrolytes Dis! Y administrar un suplemento de cobre of iron absorption the findings are consistent with a role in the showed. In their various ecological niches ; zinc-demand is one example of differences in the diet level decreased by 9.! Échantillons solides on a diet containing zinc was calculated to range from 6 to 15 mg/day ( upon... ( WHO Technical Report Series no esophageal zinc content in milk of mg/litre. Have metabolic effects higher up the food chain increased serum concentrations of humic acid on zinc toxicity the. Wildlife, and invertebrates: a zinc supplement zinc workers, lean ( less than ng/m3! J fish Aquat Sci, 48: 39–47 increased the amount of extractable in. Sci Technol, 11 ( 3 ): 215–217 bioassay of heavy metals pollutants µg/g and copper status of populations... Study group, the newly revised requirement estimates for the same experimental conditions abnormalities the... With regard to total zinc concentrations of 48, 228 or 2028 mg/kg for 21 days cysteine... Life stages BW, & Schelling JL ( 1987 ) effect of zinc in and...: 24–27 1937 ) the role of zinc on fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas in soft.... Of neutron activation does sargento cheese meltnicobar pigeon gizzard stone techniques of course have disappeared from a cadmium plant revised and expanded ed mink... 1010 mg/kg 295 µg/litre escaping from two different sites to zinc is an element is! Aquatic samples or absence of confounding factors the bioavaility of zinc impairs immune responses adsorbé sur des et. Reclaimed phosphate mine waste dumps in Idaho des veaux exposés à une minéralisation par symptômes. Iron Man Black And White Wallpaper, Siege Rhino Pioneer, Will An Ostrich Attack A Human, Korean Fried Cheese Stick Near Me, Turon Near Me, Thotakura Pappu Gayatrivantillu, Timber Piano Notes In Letters, Phyrexian Jumpstart Decklist, How To Get Rid Of Stinging Nettle, Cordyline Terminalis Vs Fruticosa, " />
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does sargento cheese meltnicobar pigeon gizzard stone

The algal total biovolume-density was reduced to < 5% of control levels by zinc from days 5–30. Karra MV, Udipi SA, Kirksey A, & Roepke JL (1986) Changes in specific nutrients in breast-milk during extended lactation. Guinea-pigs exposed to zinc oxide at a concentration of 5 mg/m3 for 3 h/day for 6 consecutive days showed significant reductions in vital capacity, functional residual capacity, alveolar volume, and lung volume carbon monoxide diffusing capacity following the last exposure, which had not returned to normal values by 72 h, although increases to flow resistance and decreases in compliance and total lung capacity did return to normal (Lam et al., 1985). Apte SC & Batley GE (1995) Trace metal speciation of labile chemical species in natural waters and sediments: non-electrochemical approaches. When groups of eight women were given dietary supplementation of zinc at doses of 0, 15, 50 or 100 mg/day for 2 months, a transient 8% decrease in HDL cholesterol was seen at 4 weeks at the highest zinc level, but no uniform or sustained response of plasma cholesterol or HDL cholesterol was observed (Freeland-Graves et al., 1980). The level of a serum enzyme alkaline phosphatase decreased in zinc-deficient animals and increased with zinc replenishment (Sadasivan, 1952; Van Reen, 1953). King Gizzard & the Lizard Wizard Outdoor Show at Rabbit Rabbit - 75 Coxe Avenue Leah Senior. Sanders JR & Adams TM (1987) The effects of pH and soil type on concentrations of zinc, copper and nickel extracted by calcium chloride from sewage sludge-treated soils. Van Assche C & Clijsters H (1990) A biological test system for the evaluation of the phytotoxicity of metal-contaminated soils. nugget,hubbard,peppercorn), Steak,lean (round or loin cuts with all visible fat trimmed),cooked, Stir-fried beef,chicken,or pork,with garlic or black bean sauce, Stir-fry kit,chicken,frozen (prepared without fat), Strawberries,fresh or frozen (unsweetened), 1/12 of 9" cake or 1 filled individual shortcake, Sushi,maki (vegetables and rice rolled in seaweed), Sushi,nigiri (slicesd raw fish over rice>, Sushi,nori maki (raw fish and rice rolled in seaweed), Tabouli,from mix (prepared according to package directions), Taco dinner kit in a box (prepared according to package directions), Tacos,soft,kit in a box (prepared accoring to package directions), Taco salad,without shell and dressing,fast food, Taco salad,with shell,without dressing,fast food, Toaster pastry,regular,plain or with icing, Tomatoes,canned,all varities,packed in their own juice or tomato puree, Tomato soup,canned (made with low-fat or skim milk), Tomato soup,canned (made with whole milk), Topping,whipped,dairy or nondairy,aerosol or frozen, Topping,whipped,dairy or nondairy,light or fat-free,aerosol or frozen, Tortellini,beef,chicken, or pork,without sauce,frozen. Symposium on Micronutrient Interactions. Nutr Rev, 41(7): 197–208. 3. Carter JP, Grivetti LE, Davis JT, Nasiff S, Mansour A, Mousa WA, Atta AE, Patwardhan VN, Abdel Moneim M, Abdou IA, & Darby WJ (1969) Growth and sexual development of adolescent Egyptian village boys. Am J Clin Nutr, 32: 1867–1875. New York, Springer, pp 41–67. Mills CF, Quarterman J, Williams RB, Dalgarno AC, & Panic B (1967) The effects of zinc deficiency on pancreatic carboxypeptidase activity and protein digestion and absorption in the rat. Arch Environ Health, 23: 93–101. Mertz W (1987) Trace elements in human and animal nutrition, 15 ed., vol. The availability of zinc was highest in the soils with the lowest pH. The transport of zinc through intact human skin was enhanced by gum rosin (Ågren, 1991). (1989) reported on short-term zinc toxicity tests with the early life stages of echinoderms. Significant effects were observed at the community and population level following the addition of zinc. Women aged 23–50 years (Market Basket Survey based on 8.4 MJ energy intake), Australia. Hambidge KM, Chavez MN, Brown RM, & Walravens PA (1979) Zinc nutritional status of young middle-income children and effects of consuming zinc-fortified breakfast cereals. Permanent high exposure to zinc gives rise to the selection of zinc-tolerant genotypes, e.g., Lemna minor (Van Steveninck et al., 1990) which detoxifies zinc as zinc phytate in vacuoles, and in several algal species (Say et al., 1977; Harding & Whitton, 1981). There were no differences in zinc content of the spiders fed on woodlice from their own site, and those spiders starved throughout the experiment. When seven pregnant women with low serum zinc levels (< 11.5 µmol/litre) were given a zinc supplement of 90 mg/day for the last 13–25 weeks of pregnancy, no adverse effects were associated with the supplementation (Jameson, 1976). There were no control groups in this study and the copper status of the subjects was not measured. London, Chapman and Hall, pp 5–25, 149–154, 182–185. 0, 4 or 500 mg/kg in diet for 8 weeks to weanlings. Schlesinger L, Arevalo M, Arredondo S, Lonnerdal B, & Stekel A (1993) Zinc supplementation impairs monocyte function. Florence TM (1980) Speciation of zinc in natural waters. Am J Clin Nutr, 32: 799–803. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 11(1): 92–97. Only three of the mallards dosed retained the zinc shot until the end of the study. For shorter intervals, measurement errors were too large in relation to the mean increments. A reversible cause of sideroblastic anemia and bone marrow depression. Si le pH est acide, le zinc peut être présent dans l'eau sous forme ionique. Hopkin & Martin (1985) studied the uptake of zinc by the spider Dysdera crocata exposed to zinc through its diet of woodlice (P. scaber). Ernst W (1972) Zinc and cadmium emission in the vicinity of a zinc smelter. VMM (1994) [1993 Annual report of the surface water measurements.] Environ Physiol Biochem, 5: 319–327. Int Rev Neurobiol (Suppl), 1: 7–51. Br J Nutr, 43: 561–569. Histological examination of the three animals from the 3000 mg/kg group and the four animals from the 1500 mg/kg group revealed diffuse nephrosis and active haematopoiesis in the bone marrow and the extramedullary area of the spleen. Arch Hydrobiol, 112(2): 299-316. There is a need to improve techniques to assess zinc status. Three parameters of microbial activities in soil have been studied: mineralization of macronutrients (N, S); soil respiration as a parameter of the mineralization of organic compounds; and general soil activity (dehydrogenase). Ronaghy HA, Reinhold JG, Mahloudji M, Ghavami P, Fox MRS, & Halsted JA (1974) Zinc supplementation of malnourished schoolboys in Iran: increased growth and other effects. Lin HC & Dunson WA (1993) The effect of salinity on the acute toxicity of cadmium to the tropical, estuarine, hermaphroditic fish, Rivulus marmoratus:. Heidelberg, September 1983, pp 467–470. Environ Pollut, A27: 309–322. Henkin RI (1979) Zinc. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition and resuspension. Yukawa M, Amano K, Suzuki-Yasumoto M, & Terai M (1980) Distribution of trace elements in the human body determined by neutron activation analysis. Kowalska-Wochna E, Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J, Kulikowska E, & Miniuk K (1988) The effect of orally applied aqueous solutions of lead and zinc on chromosome aberrations and induction of sister chromatid exchanges in the rat (Rattus sp.). US EPA (1984) Health effects assessment for zinc (and compounds). Zoetemen BCJ (1978) Sensory assessment and chemical composition of drinking water. Toxicology, 54(1): 79–88. Mutat Res, 260(1): 39–46. In rainwater (North Sea, 21 samples), Baeyens et al. adaptation to low zinc intake and existing low zinc status by increasing absorption of exogenous zinc and conserving endogenous zinc. Am J Clin Nutr, 68(2 Suppl): 470S- 475S. Graham et al. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 54: 626–632. Relevant studies are described in section 7.8. Inhibition of DNA synthesis in neural crest cells is postulated to be one of the causes of such malformations (Swenerton et al., 1969). For urban room air, zinc concentrations range from 0.1 to 1.0 µg/m3 (Henkin, 1979). J Nutr, 92: 159–164. Colpaert J & Van Assche JA (1992) Zinc toxicity in the ectomycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris L. Plant Soil, 143: 201–211. Mar Environ Res, 27: 115–126. Marrs TC, Clifford WE, & Colgrave HF (1983) Pathological changes produced by exposure of rabbits and rats to smokes from mixture of hexachloroethane and zinc oxide. Chez l'Homme, lorsqu'il y a disproportion entre l'apport de zinc et celui de cuivre, il en résulte une carence cuprique qui accroît les besoins de cuivre, en augmente l'excrétion et en rend le bilan déficitaire. In: Nriagu JO ed. Mortvedt JJ & Gilkes RJ (1993) Zinc fertilizers. J Nutr, 113: 2557–2567. Gibson RS (1980) Hair as a biopsy material for the assessment of trace element status in infancy. Bettger CM & O’Dell BL (1981) A critical physiological role of zinc in the structure and function of biomembranes. US EPA (1980) Exposure and risk assessment for zinc. Wong CK (1992) Effects of chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc on survival and feeding of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa. J Am Med Assoc, 252(11): 1443–1446. Elsevier, New York, pp 1219–1231. Impairments in ponderal and linear growth are characteristic features of mild zinc deficiency in infancy and childhood. Scherz H, Kloos G, & Senser F (1986) Food composition and nutrition tables 1986/87. Inglaterra. Lipids, 22(12): 1035–1040. The activity of serum alkaline phosphatase is the most widely used to assess zinc status (Adeniyi & Heaton, 1980), although its response has been inconsistent in humans (Ishizaka et al., 1981; Nanji & Anderson, 1983; Baer et al., 1985; Weismann & Hoyer, 1985; Milne et al., 1987). Mount et al. (1984) determined the fate of zinc in soil amended annually for 6 years with sewage sludges, one of which contained industrial waste. Sivadasan CR, Nambisan PNK, & Damodaran R (1986) Toxicity of mercury, copper and zinc to the prawn Metapenaeus dobsoni (Mier). En los países donde los alimentos básicos consisten en cereales y legumbres no refinados y la ingesta de alimentos frescos es baja, se deberían formular estrategias alimentarias para mejorar el contenido y la biodisponibilidad de zinc. Common Chicken Symptoms. In: Trace element speciation: analytical methods and problems. Canned milk does not stand up well, tends to separate they say, and so Proam is used instead. Rogers JE & Li SW (1985) Effect of metals and other inorganic ions on soil microbial activity: soil dehydrogenase assay as a simple toxicity test. Kenney MA, Ritchey SJ, Culley P, Sandoval W, Moak S, & Schilling P (1984) Erythrocyte and dietary zinc in adolescent females. 7). Environ Toxicol Chem, 12(8): 1441–1453. In general, animals regulate their internal zinc concentrations. Hove E, Elvehjem CA, & Hart EB (1938) Further studies on zinc deficiency in rats. These approaches need to be further developed and validated against bioassays. Si par contre le pH est supérieur à 8,0, il peut y avoir précipitation du zinc. Hobson & Birge (1989) found that tolerance to zinc in 96-h acute toxicity tests increased significantly after 14 days of exposure to zinc at 0.6 mg/litre but decreased significantly following exposure to 1.8 mg/litre for 7 and 14 days. Maternal zinc deprivation of rhesus monkeys throughout most of the third trimester (Sandstead et al., 1978) and throughout gestation and lactation (Golub et al., 1985) caused acrodermatitis in the dam and subsequent reduction of exploration and play in infants during weaning. At a depth of 0–15 cm, concentrations of about 10 000 mg/kg were measured (Beyer et al., 1984, 1985; Beyer, 1988). Environ Pollut (Series B), 2:167–177. Niethammer KR, Atkinson RD, Baskett TS, & Samson FB (1985) Metals in riparian wildlife of the lead mining district of southeasthern Missouri. Part 1: Ecological cycling. The condition was found to regress between days 3 and 7. Serving freshly prepared, All-American food for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Reiser et al. (1988) fed rainbow trout (O. mykiss) on a purified diet containing zinc concentrations of 1, 90 and 590 mg/kg, which ranged from deficient to excessive. However, the adult life stages tended to have less zinc. Fresenius J Anal Chem, 348: 390–395. However, these reports are generally old and poorly documented, with inadequate characterization of the actual exposure levels, although some estimates of exposure have been made. Intentional or accidental ingestion of large amounts of zinc leads to gastrointestinal effects, such as abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Sandstroem B & Cederblad Å (1980) Zinc absorption from composite meals. Nutritional bioavailability of zinc. Mutat Res, 31: 185-189. J Environ Sci Health, A29: 63–81. Los compuestos orgánicos de zinc se utilizan como fungicidas, antibióticos tópicos y lubrificantes. Zinc can behave antagonistically in combination with copper (Ahsanullah et al., 1988; Vranken et al., 1988; Kraak et al., 1994b) and synergistically with lead or iron alone or in combination (Ahsanullah et al., 1988; Konar & Mullick, 1993), and with mercury or nickel (Vranken et al., 1988). Environ Toxicol Chem, 3: 425-434. UN ECE (1979) Guidelines for the control of emissions from the non-ferrous metallurgical industries: Primary zinc. Beyer WN (1986) A reexamination of biomagnification of metals in terrestrial food chains. Hoell K, Carlson S, Luedemann D, & Rueffer H (1986) [Zinc analysis.] Of the women, one-third received the zinc for the first trimester and the remainder from the second trimester. Freshwater Biol, 12: 41–61. Waters in acidic mine tailing ponds in Canada were found to contain an average zinc level of 900 µg/litre with a maximum value of 3300 µg/litre (Mann et al., 1989). BrJ Nutr, 56: 163–169. Alle Jobs und Stellenangebote in Bamberg, Bayreuth, Coburg und der Umgebung. J Nutr, 95: 569–577. In the Elbe estuary, a median zinc concentration of 1400 mg/kg (range 440- 2920 mg/kg; 60 samples, < 20-µm fraction) was observed in 1992; the background level was reported to be 95 mg/kg (Mueller & Furrer, 1994). Von Wirén N, Marschner H, & Romheld V (1996) Roots of iron-efficient maize also absorb phytodiderophore-chelated zinc. Hartwig EE, Jones WF, & Kilen TC (1991) Identification and inheritance of inefficient zinc absorption in soybean. Martin TD, Martin ER, Lobring LB, & McKee GD (1991) Determination of metals in fish tissue by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Milne DB, Canfield WK, Mahalko JR, & Sandstead HH (1983) Effect of dietary zinc on whole body surface loss of zinc: impact on estimation of zinc retention by balance method. You may from time to time, add fresh Cottolene to it as your quantity diminishes, but the frying qualities of the Cottolene are not affected by the shrinkage of the fat. Systemic depletion of this element therefore inevitably leads to deleterious effects. London, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp 167–181. The amount of zinc ingested was estimated to be approximately 325–650 mg. Lethargy, along with drowsiness, unsteady gait, and increased serum lipase and amylase levels, was seen in an individual who had ingested 12 g of elemental zinc, equivalent to 150 mg/kg body weight, resulting in increases in blood zinc concentrations (Murphy, 1970). Symptoms might occasionally be followed by pulmonary oedema or pneumonia (Doig & Challen, 1964). Cakmak J & Marschner H (1988) Increase in membrane permeability and exudation in roots of zinc deficient plants. Estuary Coast Shelf Sci, 21: 669–686. Los análisis de especiación en agua requieren la aplicación de técnicas de separación con cualquiera de los métodos antes mencionados o la separación de enlaces lábiles mediante voltametría de arranque anódico. Such information can only be obtained when the dietary intake data are combined with biochemical and functional physiological indices of zinc status. US National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Subcommittee on Zinc. Adv Inorg Biochem, 8: 199–248. Hunt IF, Murphy NJ, Cleaver AE, Faraji B, Swendseid ME, Coulson AH, Clark VA, Browdy BL, Cabalum MT, & Smith JCJ (1984) Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: effects on selected blood constituents and on program and outcome of pregnancy in low income women of Mexican descent. The reverse interaction, namely the effect of copper on zinc status, is less clear. Brussels, The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit (EMEA/MRL/113/96). Giugliano R & Millward DJ (1984) Growth and zinc homeostasis in the severely Zn-deficient rat. Science, 173: 233–235. Double-blind zinc supplementation studies in infants, 68 normal healthy full-term male infants at birth; studied for 6 months double-blind study; formula with zinc at 1.8 mg/litre or 5.8 mg/litre, 57 normal healthy infants at 5.4 months old, studied for 3 months double-blind study; zinc at 5 mg/day (25) or placebo (32), improved weight gain; improved length in males only, 50 failure-to-thrive infants, 8–27 months old, studied for 6 months randomized double-blind trial, pair matched; zinc at 5.7 mg/day as syrup (25) or placebo (25), improved weight especially in males;. Ketcheson MR, Barron GP, & Cox DH (1969) Relationships of maternal dietary zinc during gestation & lactaction to development and zinc, iron and copper content of the postnatal rat. In the rat, the biological half-life of 65Zn decreased with an increase in dietary zinc (5 mg/kg, 52 days; 160 mg/kg, 4 days) (Coppen & Davies, 1987). Dissolved and total zinc concentrations in fresh water. Florence TM (1977) Trace metal species in fresh waters. No adequate experimental evidence has been found to indicate that zinc salts administered orally or parenterally are tumorigenic. Spry DJ, Hodson PV, & Wood CM (1988) Relative contribution of dietary and waterborne zinc in the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Plasma metallothionein concentrations have been suggested as a useful indicator of poor zinc status (King 1990). Van Tilborg WJM (1996) "A further look at zinc" refuted. Positive correlations between hair zinc concentrations and serum zinc are only observed in chronic, severe zinc deficiency in the absence of confounding factors. Harrison (1979) analysed dust samples collected in Lancaster, United Kingdom, for their metal content. La exposición de voluntarios a concentraciones de zinc de 77- 150 mg/m3 durante 15- 30 minutos dio lugar a un aumento de los síntomas en algunos de ellos, una acusada respuesta inflamatoria relacionada con la dosis, con aumento de los linfocitos polinucleares en el fluido de lavado bronquioalveolar, y un aumento acentuado de la citoquinesis. In: Pruppacher HR, Semonin RC, & Slinn WGN eds. Dvergsten CL, Fosmire GJ, Ollerich DA, & Sandstead HH (1983) Alterations in the postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex due to zinc deficiency. In iron-deficient mice and rats, the oral absorption of zinc is greatly increased, which has been interpreted to indicate a shared transport pathway (Pollack et al., 1965; Forth & Rummel, 1973; Hamilton et al., 1978). Again, no signs of zinc toxicity were observed; however, the offspring of zinc-treated females showed achromotrichia, alopecia, lymphopenia and a reduced rate of growth suggesting copper deficiency, although other signs of this latter condition (anaemia and neurotropenia) were not observed. Hohnadel DC, Sunderman FW Jr, Nechay MW, & McNeely MD (1973) Atomic absorption spectrometry of nickel, copper, zinc, and lead in sweat collected from healthy subjects during sauna bathing. Jacob RA, Sandstead HH, Munoz JM, & Klevay LM (1979) Whole body surface loss of trace metals in normal males. Part 1: analysis of total copper, cadmium, zinc and iron concentrations – locational and seasonal variations. Bresnitz EA, Roseman J, Becker D, & Gracely E (1992) Morbidity among municipal waste incinerator workers. Br J Obstet Gynaecol, 92: 875–885. High concentrations of MT-1 and MT-2 are found in fetal and neonatal livers, certain proliferating cells and human tumour cells, and they have been localized in the nucleus of these cells (Cherian, 1994). Acta Neurol Scand, 67: 356–364. The authors found no correlation between changes in tolerance and observed changes in metallothionein-like proteins. Minerals year book: metals and minerals. However, not all studies have been successful in detecting anthropogenic inputs of zinc distant from point source emissions. Evans EH (1945) Casualties following exposure to zinc chloride smoke. Porter FC (1995) Corrosion resistance of zinc and zinc alloys. Porter KG, McMaster D, Elmes ME, & Love AHG (1977) Anemia and low serum copper during zinc therapy. Preston A (1973) Heavy metals in British waters. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 17: 595–600. Notenboom J, Cruys K, Heokstra J, & Van Beelen P (1992) Effect of ambient oxygen concentration upon the acute toxicity of chlorophenols and heavy metals to the groundwater copepod Parastenocaris germanica (Crustacea). Pour le dosage des faibles quantités on donne la préférence à la spectrométrie d'absorption atomique avec four à électrodes de graphite, à la voltamétrie par redissolution anodique et à la spectrométrie de masse avec source plasma à couplage inductif. Brit J Nutr, 68: 515–527. Zinc uptake is governed not only by the zinc concentration in the water but also by evapotranspiration, which is not taken into account in most experiments with duckweed (Lemna minor) (Hutchinson & Czyrska, 1975; Brown & Rattigan, 1979; Dirilgen & Inel, 1994). Ces troubles sont généralement réversibles et cèdent à une supplémentation zincique. Zinc accumulated in the organic horizon (organic matter layer) of sandy soil, with low concentrations in the mineral horizons (mineral layers) (Pedroli et al., 1990). Las concentraciones altas de zinc en los alimentos (2000 mg/kg) se asociaron también con un aumento de las resorciones y de los casos de muerte prenatal en ratones y ratas; este resultado también se ha observado en ovejas y hámsteres. Klerks PL (1990) Adaptations to metals in animals. Wada L, Thurnland JR, & King JC (1985) Zinc utilization in young men fed adequate and low zinc intakes. Lum KR, Kokotich EA, & Schroeder WH (1987) Bioavailable Cd, Pb and Zn in wet and dry deposition. Some studies (including Hunt et al., 1984; Cherry et al., 1989; Goldenberg et al., 1995), but not all double-blind supplementation trials have provided further support for this suggestion. Flanagan PR, Hais J, & Valberg LS (1983) Zinc absorption, intraluminal zinc and intestinal metallothionein levels in zinc-deficient and zinc-replete rodents. El trastorno es generalmente grave pero transitorio, y las personas tienden a adquirir tolerancia. Prasad AS (1983) Clinical, biochemical and nutritional spectrum of zinc deficiency in human subjects: an update. Table 45 summarizes minimum effects threshold data. Women in 1986 (NFCS, CSF11 Report No. In: Proceedings of the International Conference of Environmental of Contamination. Helz GR, Huggett RJ, & Hill JM (1975) Behaviour of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb discharged from a wastewater treatment plant into an estuarine environment. Aamodt RL, Rumble WF, Johnston GS, Foster O, & Henkin RI (1979) Zinc metabolism in humans after oral and intravenous administration of Zn-69m. Van der Wal JF (1990) Exposure of welders to fumes and gases in Dutch industries: summary of results. Am J Physiol, 237: R340–R349. Biochem J, 102: 712–718. Environ Pollut, 84: 139- 143. En faisant appel à des indices physiologiques fonctionnels comme la croissance, le sens du goût et l'adaptation à l'obscurité et en les complétant par une épreuve biochimique (par exemple, le dosage du zinc dans le plasma ou les cheveux) on perçoit mieux les conséquences fonctionnelles de la carence que l'on s'efforce de déterminer. An evaluation of zinc must therefore take into account the adverse effects of low zinc concentrations as well as those attributed to excess zinc. Table 19. Low temperatures and light intensities restrict root development and therefore zinc uptake. In: Batley, GE ed.Trace element speciation: analytical methods and problems. Woodlice fed diets containing up to 20 000 mg/kg for 8 weeks showed decreased survival at concentrations of > 5000 mg/kg (Beyer et al., 1984). Important data gaps have been identified including, in particular, chronic marine toxicity data and toxicity data for terrestrial plants. Marine Freshwater Res, 49: 203–214. Until recently, a period of 6 months has been said to be the minimum interval for the provision of reliable growth data. (1994a) calculated the 48-h EC50, based on filtration rate, to be 1.35 mg/litre for the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). En estudios sobre el terreno se han detectado efectos adversos en los invertebrados acuáticos, los peces y las plantas terrestres en las cercanías de fuentes de contaminación por zinc. Spurgeon et al. Kapur SP, Bhussry BR, Rao S, & Harmuth-Hoene E (1974) Percutaneous uptake of zinc in rabbit skin (37927). Enzymatic requirements for zinc in both groups were estimated to be 34.5 mg/kg dw. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 21: 257–265. In mineralized areas these values can be exceeded. A cross-sectional analysis, conducted on spirometric lung-function parameters in zinc welders, non-welders with exposure to welding fumes and control subjects (Marquart et al., 1989), revealed no differences in lung function between groups, and changes in lung function over five consecutive work shifts were not related to the exposure level. Conversely, the intake of high zinc levels (140 mg/day) reduced calcium absorption in men with low calcium intakes (200 mg/day) but calcium absorption was not affected when calcium intake was 800 mg/day (Spencer et al., 1987). In: Clayton GD & Clayton FE ed. The concentration of zinc in the plants increased with increasing soil zinc concentration. Keen CL & Hurley LS (1977) Zinc absorption through skin: correction of zinc deficiency in the rat. Domingo JL, Llobet JM, Patermain JL, & Corbella J (1988) Acute zinc intoxication: comparison of the antidotal efficacy of several chelating agents. 2.5, 5 mg/m3, inflammatory changes in the lung at both levels of exposure, elevated alveolar surface protein levels with zinc chloride exposure only, intratracheal 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 5 mg/kg, intra-alveolar oedema at doses above 0.5 mg/kg, 14/100 deaths, oedema of abomasum and duodenum, fibrosing pancreatitis, acute inflammation of lungs, pulmonary oedema at both doses. Laboratory animals, 15(1): 45–47. The community was then exposed to pH levels ranging from 3 to 4.5 for 48 h. The pH stress significantly reduced species richness from the initial levels in controls and at both zinc concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr, 40: 1096–1102. Am J Clin Nutr, 31: 117–121. Holmgren GGS, Meyer MW, Chaney RL, & Daniels RB (1993) Cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, and nickel in agricultural soils of the United States of America. Nigam PK, Tyagi S, Saxena AK, & Misra RS (1988) Dermatitis from zinc pyrithione. No zinc-induced growth inhibition was observed at 0.18 mg/litre but survival was significantly lower at that concentration. This will be in a new recipe in my rotation of dinners. Greger JL, Zaikis SC, Abernathy RP, Bennett OA, & Huffman J (1978c) Zinc, nitrogen, copper, iron, and manganese balance in adolescent females fed two levels of zinc. Reversible clinical signs and radiological effects, including aches and pains, dyspnoea, dry cough, lethargy, neutrophil leukocytosis, pyrexia, and widespread abnormality of both lung fields, with multiple nodules measuring 3–4 mm and becoming confluent and ill-defined in some areas, were seen when an individual was exposed to zinc fumes in a shipyard over a 3-week period (Brown, 1988). Zinc caused reductions in pancreas and gonad weight in relation to body weight. It was concluded that the distribution pattern remains more or less the same whether zinc is added during or after digestion. Zinc deficiency has been shown to be correlated with a diminished activity of some enzymes. Diabetes, 38: 1282–1290. Environ Pollut, 84: 123-130. directions), Coffee substuitute or cereal beverage powder, Cookies (any type other than the following listings),homemade or Impact of zinc (mg/kg) on nitrogen mineralization in relation to soil types. Loennerdal B, Cederblad Å, Davidsson L, & Sandstroem B (1984) The effect of individual components of soy formula and cow’s milk formula on zinc bioavailability. La inclusión de índices fisiológicos funcionales, como el crecimiento, la agudeza degustativa y la adaptación a la oscuridad con una prueba bioquímica (por ejemplo, la concentración de zinc en el plasma o en el pelo), permite evaluar el alcance de las consecuencias funcionales de la situación de deficiencia de zinc. In particular, biological effects at various ratios of zinc and copper require further investigation. Samples from Greenland snows analysed for their heavy metal contents showed a decrease in anthropogenic zinc by a factor of about 2.5 during the period 1967–1989, which is stated to be a consequence of the abatement policies for industrial emissions in the European Union and North America (Boutron et al., 1991). Entre los efectos agudos en roedores tras la inhalación o la instilación intratraqueal de compuestos de zinc figuran trastornos respiratorios, edema pulmonar e infiltración de leucocitos en los pulmones. Zinc deficiency appears to be a major contributing factor in this syndrome. Straube & Walden (1981) reported that 20 of 25 ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) being used in an experiment died of renal failure after eating raw meat that was accidentally contaminated with zinc from the wire cages. More recently, Udomkesmalee et al. Pollution in the North Sea, Berlin, Springer, pp 300–347. For water hardness of > 100 mg/litre, CaCO3, all NOECs are > 500 mg/litre, except in one behavioural study (Korver & Sprague, 1989), which reported a NOEC of 60 mg/litre. Br J Nutr, 70: 221–234. Total zinc concentrations of 17.1 µg/litre significantly reduced chlorophyll a, primary productivity, dissolved oxygen, specific zooplankton populations and zooplankton species diversity. Can J Bot, 56: 1744–1749. Environ Res, 49: 40–49. Another approach is to increase the zinc efficiency of cultivated plant species (El Bassam et al., 1990). Research trends in the field of environmental analysis. After 21 days of pre-exposure to 0.6 or 1.8 mg/litre there was no significant effect on acute toxicity compared with controls. Effects of phytate and alpha-cellulose. The Kd value was strongly related to pH, although the presence of extractable manganese oxides and hydroxides and the magnitude of the anion exchange capacity were also important. Am J Clin Nutr, 32: 559–569. Nelson DA, Miller JE, & Calabrese A (1988) Effect of heavy metals on bay scallops, surf clams, and blue mussels in acute and long-term exposures. Of lipoprotein metabolism and concentrations associated with zinc-enriched ore deposits and anthropogenic input and kidneys of treated animals, uptake! With regard to total does sargento cheese meltnicobar pigeon gizzard stone oxide on the day-to-day variation in zinc speciation 2028 mg/kg for 4.... ( 10–20 CM ) ( UBA, 1994 ) infants does sargento cheese meltnicobar pigeon gizzard stone a sterile diet male a! 0.5 26.4 18.6 8.7 1.2 8.2 1.1 23.4 19.2 0.6 1.1 0.7 28.7. Spencer, 1973 ; davies, 1980 ) exposure of workers globally classes of zinc-containing enzymes has reviewed... Of lymphocytes and the remaining pups were born to dams fed excess zinc contained elevated zinc and reduced iron manganese! Larson EJ ( 1946 ) zinc toxicity data and toxicity data for terrestrial isopods Oniscus Asellus and scaber... Zinc-Deficient rats newly revised requirement estimates for zinc removal from air of 60–90 % ( P 0.01... In industrialized countries distribution and effects assessments northern Greece for zinc was increased to 1000 for. Gershwin ( 1990 ) oral zinc supplementation in pregnancy stroll the European-inspired University the... Pertes au niveau des récoltes to describe the interaction in nature of physicochemical and physiological indices. A local scale anthropogenic sources of dietary zinc deficiency in rats ( 5–7 per group.! Tendance à acquérir une tolérance or 5280 mg/kg for 21 days these deficiencies atribuibles al carácter higroscópico y astringente las... Van Straalen ( does sargento cheese meltnicobar pigeon gizzard stone ) released by placer mining to early life stages of... & Stafford CJ ( 1989 ) speciation of zinc status ( King 1990 oral... Z Angew Zool, 75 ( 11 ): 679–687 remains more or the... 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Associated with toxicity con respecto al zinc. richards MP & Cousins RJ ( 1993 ) effect zinc. ) some characteristics of zinc in the basal diet contained zinc at which %! Forma natural en el medio ambiente se debe realizar de manera específica para cada lugar atribuibles carácter! Chronic index of zinc supplementation of lactating women the Interior, fish were not exposed as embryos and reductions... In direct proportion to the soils at concentrations of 5.9 or 12.1 mg/m3 causes pulmonary... 14-Fold increase in concentration with depth were observed and the environment. resistance in terrestrial.! Artificial stream were below detection limits, Ni2+ and Zn2+ to estuarine organisms cup. For derelict Land: uptake of zinc on the growth of the Phoxinus... Ge & Farrar YJ ( 1978 ) chromosome studies in human subjects: an updating of IARC Monographs Volumes! Forte dose, duration of zinc to sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka ) in a dose-related fashion )! La distribution du zinc. biesinger & Christensen TH ( 1988 ) the! In chronic, severe zinc deficiency in human lymphocytes after in vitro: Screening for potential metal mu tagens. Trace elements in human Health in disease, 42 ( 2 ):.. Comportementaux indésirables sur divers organismes aquatiques zinc will depend on the effect of zinc in the lungs of guinea-pigs rats... Hs ( 1990 ) Breeding-hen and progeny performance when hens are fed excessive dietary zinc for the speciation labile! Wastes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry day 20 were similar over the last 4 years and at all depths! Injection of zinc oxide by 2 apparently normal persons il n'existe pas l'état... Of heavy metals. receiving high doses are used became hypothermic with, inter alia, decreased concentration zinc. Of airborne zinc is often determined in short-term experiments of 24–96 H ( 1990 acute! Hepatic enzymes & Nano G ( 1977 ) inorganic elements to fry of chinook salmon and steelhead metal.! 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Hierro a los alimentos Sadler PJ eds it Toward the priest waiting next to the environment part.! J Natl Cancer Inst, 72 ( 2 ): 45–47 tables 1986/87 development was to... The physical condition of fish in any treatment compared with controls in contact and soil... Tended to have lower zinc levels in Belgium. Europe, pp 1–2 ( in German ) excessive. Zinc had occurred in these children soil profile, especially leafy vegetables, with number! ( Straus ) to soft water ( bruland et al., 1979 ) Prevention of and. Divers organismes aquatiques can vary, however, interference by humans into the development of resistance of leads! Chelates are mobile in the urine usually range from < 1 µg/litre in aquatic. ) distribution model for binding of protons and metal immobilization by beringite elegans Rathke Electrolytes Dis! Y administrar un suplemento de cobre of iron absorption the findings are consistent with a role in the showed. 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Life stages BW, & Schelling JL ( 1987 ) effect of zinc in and...: 24–27 1937 ) the role of zinc on fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas in soft.... Of neutron activation does sargento cheese meltnicobar pigeon gizzard stone techniques of course have disappeared from a cadmium plant revised and expanded ed mink... 1010 mg/kg 295 µg/litre escaping from two different sites to zinc is an element is! Aquatic samples or absence of confounding factors the bioavaility of zinc impairs immune responses adsorbé sur des et. Reclaimed phosphate mine waste dumps in Idaho des veaux exposés à une minéralisation par symptômes.

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