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dioscorea bulbifera morphology

Thus, the D. bulbifera plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryogenic tissues were genetically stable at the molecular, biochemical and morphological levels. Methods Circular No. Introduction. hirtiflora Benth.,D. This paper adds new data on the pollen and orbicule morphology of 61 Dioscorea L. (Dioscoreaceae) species to the survey of Schols et al. The use of micro-propagation techniques for endangered plant genetic resources conservation was recognized late in the seventies (Ivanova et al., 2011). This study combined taxonomic skill with tissue culture. Rose leaf structure in relation to different stages of micropropagation. Dioscorea bulbifera (comúnmente conocido como la patata aire, ñame aire, ñame aérea, ñame amargo, ñame descarado, ñame papa y ñame chirivía) es una especie de la verdadera ñame en el ñame familia, Dioscoreaceae.Es originaria de África, Asia y el norte de Australia. The variation in the floral morphology seen in the flowers, fruits, seeds and floral formulae of the investigated Dioscorea species, … The root tubers are usually absent or insignificant. Species mis-identification of herbal drugs due to numerous local names given to the same species or several species of crude drug with the same local name is common in Africa[16]. It is named by the monk Charles Plumier after the ancient Greek physician and botanist Dioscorides A potential plasmid-curing agent, 8-epidiosbulbin E acetate, from. Antibacterial activities of the extract, fractions and compounds from, Shriram V, Jahagirdar S, Latha C, Kumar V, Puranik V, Rojatkar S, et al. A combination of these features had been found useful for taxonomic distinction and recognition in angiosperm families. andD. Leaf micro-characters can be used for distinguishing crude drugs even when they are fragmented[10]. Most farmers regard the plant as weed competing with their farm products and clear them from the farm. La papa del aire (Dioscorea bulbífera), es una especie de ñame cierto en el Dioscoreaceae o verdadera familia yam. Smilacifolia De Wild. preussii Pax,D. Bat. Anatomical study, petiole, leaf, tuber, root and flower of, Aina OD, Atumeyi S. Foliar epidermal anatomy of four species of. Dioscorea bulbifera (Papa aérea): información. In Europe D. caucasica and D. pyrenaica are found. phone: +2348063603103 . In the present review its habit, habitat, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological properties are discussed. flower of D. bulbifera is a distinctive feature of this taxon. Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria., Tel: +23408023255482, E-mail: *Corresponding author: Dr. Mubo A. Sonibare, Senior Lecturer, PhD, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Thin cuticle seems to be a common feature for all in vitro cultivated plant species. A combination of different diagnostic features (quantitative and microscopic parameters such as stomata and trichome types with sizes, shapes and sizes of epidermal cell, thickness of cell and cell inclusions) has been used for taxonomic distinction and recognition in the angiosperm family[11]–[15]. These are edible and potato like in flavor. (2001) which includes an overview of previous work. Keragaman uwi-uwian tersebut terlihat pada arah lilitan batang (searah jarum jam ... Diversity and characteristic morphology of yam (Dioscorea sp.). A survey of epidermal morphology of the genus. are presented.The most remarkable distinctive features of the taxa studied are: the presence of large fruits and raceme inflorescences inD. Yang F, Miao LF. Morpho-anatomical, biochemical and molecular parameters have also been used to monitor integrity and stability of in vitro grown plants[9]. Morphological characteristics are used to distinguish between different soils and they are used in classification of soils (Soil Survey Staff, 1998). Many results suggest that the high diosgenin content can be obtained by biotransformation, and this method should be developed in the future. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. Dioscorea hulhifera By FRANKLIN W. MARTIN, plant geneticist^ Federal Experiment Station^ Southern Region, Agricultural Research Service, JJ. The plant forms bulbils in the leaf axils of the twining stems, and tubers beneath the ground. It... Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz Bip. Many species have a low rate of flowering and fruit setting and poor seed germination. Nodal segments of D. bulbifera with elongated shoots. Joly et al. Diosgenin was first isolated by Tsukamoto and Ueno (1936) from the Japanese species D. tokoro with a yield of 1%. Pl. They concluded, based on this limited sample, that pollen morphological characters provided useful systematic data within the genus. Climate Top of page. Morphological, anatomical and phytochemical investigations are the integral part of herbal science. Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated, China Humanity Technology Publishing House, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Morphology of flood plain soils Morphology deals with spatial distribution pattern of the soil characteristics. Distinguishing Characteristics. The study further confirms the taxonomic importance of micro morphological characters in plant taxa as well as the identification of crude drug samples even when fragmentary. Mucilages are evenly and widely spread within the epidermal cell of the wild plant than the micropropagated plant. Among petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and 70% ethanol (v/v) extracts of bulbs of D. bulbifera, ethyl acetate extract showed highest inhibition upto 72.06 ± 0.51% and 82.64 ± 2.32% against α-amylase and α-glucosidase respectively. Abstract. Production of plantlets with profuse rooting in vitro is important for successful establishment of regenerated plants in soil[28]. This has led to the near extinction status of this plant in the southeastern part of Nigeria[5]. 1753.. Tubérculos hipogeos y esféricos, 20 30 cm de diámetro, corteza café clara a amarillenta, lisa; bulbilos esféricos, 1 10 cm de diámetro; tallos levovolubles. Many species of Dioscorea are native to the Old World tropics and warm-temperature regions, some to tropical America. However, we can only conserve what we know hence the need to be sure that what is propagated in vitro is the same plant in the wild. Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate and tropical regions, especially in Africa, South America and the Caribbean, Asia, and Oceania. Ninety-five percent of Dioscoreaceae species belong to the genus Dioscorea, commonly known as yam (77). Smillie TJ, Khan IA. Dioscorea bulbifera var. Morphology and the ability to form microtuber were also found to be unaltered in cryopreserved embryo-derived plantlets. From the pharmaceutical point of view, the most important has been the finding that diosgenin production in tissue culture can be at least as high as in intact plants. By using these modern and very accurate methods, it will be possible to apply plant cell cultures to commercial diosgenin production. Slight variations included thick cuticular wall with closed stomata in wild plant compared to thin walled opened stomata in the in vitro plant. 600 species and is divisible into numerous sections according to stem twining, leaf morphology, inflorescences, seed wings, bulbil formation, tuber morphology and chemical content. 2016. In the 1970’s, Pal and Sharma (1979) induced mutations by X-irradiation in D. bulbifera and D. alata with subsequent changes of steroidal sapogenin and alkaloid content in the species. MORPHOLOGY OF DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA L.21 Habit- A large glabrous climber growing 70 feet or more in length. Comparison of growth responses to auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid and the ethylene precussor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in maize seedling root. Leaf anatomy of orchids micrpropagated with different silicon concentrations. *N1: 12 weeks old nodal segment of D. bulbifera obtained from green house; **N2: 12 weeks old nodal segment obtained from underground bulbils of D. bulbifera following dormancy break. 1033. The other kind of investigations concerned species containing steroidal sapogenins, of which diosgenin is of special pharmaceutical importance. Dioscorea is a genus of over 600 species of flowering plants in the family Dioscoreaceae, native throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. Observations on floral morphology of eight species ofDioscorea L., namely,D. Abstract This biology is the 2nd in a series of Agriculture Handbooks dealing with the major species of yams. 1. In the present review its habit, habitat, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological properties are discussed. Foundation Project: Supported by University of Ibadan Senate Research Grant (Grant No. Pharmacognistic study of two medicinal species of. Rhizoma Dioscorea bulbifera, the tuber of Dioscorea bulbifera L., has been used to treat various diseases. This is a good paper elucidating the importance of micro characters in the confirmation of the identity of both micro propagated and wild samples of D. bulbifera. The same authors established that double-labelled cholesterol was converted by D. floribunda to diosgenin. Multiple root formation with single elongated shoot and no shoot and root formation. Islam MT, Chowdhury RU, Afroz R, Rahman S, Haque MM. Characterization and maintenance of yam (Dioscorea spp.) Dioscorea cayenensis has anisocytic stomata, with a percent-age frequency value of 100. Naphthalene acetic acid had been reported to inhibit root elongation in a wide range of concentrations from 0.01 µmol/L to 1 µmol/L[32]. The primary fea-tures that can help in distinguishing the species include the nature of periderm, presence or absence of pericyclic Micro morphological characters are indispensable in the identification and authentication of medicinal plants samples. The techniques utilized in this study were in accordance with methodology previously reported in literature (Saheed and Illoh, 2010; Smillie and Khan, 2010; Santos et al., 2008). Introduction . Murashige T, Skoog F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue culture. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. 1698. Behera KK, Sahoo S, Prusti AB. La Dioscorea bulbifera que crece de forma silvestre puede ser tóxica, En cuanto a su valor medicinal, en algunos países la Dioscorea bulbífera es cultivada para satisfacer la demanda de la industria farmacéutica, porque contienen el esteroide llamado diosgenina, principal componente de … Information is also included on related species occurring in Florida, including invasive winged yam, D. alata. Similarly, MS medium supplemented with NAA (1.0 mg/L) and BAP (0.5-1.0 mg/L) was reported as the best concentration for multiple shoot bud induction in Dioscorea opposita. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. In water saturated flask atmosphere such as the one presented in tissue culture experiments, the accumulation of specific gases (ethylene) in the confined atmosphere causes a dramatic increase in the transpiration rate leading to the failure of stomata to close[46]. *: P<0.05. In view of the biological and medicinal importance of D. bulbifera, and the report of its near extinction in southeast region of Nigeria, the present study was designed to compare qualitative and quantitative micro-morphological characteristics of the wild and micropropagated plants which may be employed for correcting crude drug identification. Leaves 9-25 x 8-23 cm, ovate-suborbicular, base deeply cordate, apex acuminate to shortly caudate, membranous, glabrous, basally 9-11-ribbed; petiole to 20 cm long. Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Family: Dioscoreaceae) commonly known as ‘air potato’ is an important edible medicinal plant use to treat a wide range of diseases. Dioscorea bulbifera L. Accepted Name Air potato Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Dioscoreales > Dioscoreaceae > Dioscorea > Dioscorea bulbifera L. The medium was supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose and gelled with 5 g/L agar. Microscopic evaluation is an indispensable tool for identification of medicinal herbs and is one of the essential parameter in modern monograph. The growth factors used were number of leaves, callus formation, shoot number, number of nodal segments (buds) on shoots and shoot length. Pharmacognostic and pharmaceutical studies of, Salmah T, Nashriyah M, Abdul-Ghani Y, Shamsul BA. Morphology and the ability to form microtuber were also found to be unaltered in cryopreserved embryo-derived plantlets. Similarly, explants with single node were excised from underground bulbil (12 weeks old) sprouting after dormancy break but kept indoor away from light source (the sun). Multiple shoots from subcultured nodal segments. It is a vigorous climber plant native of West Africa predominantly found in forest gaps and forest edges[1]. In vitro culture explants are exposed to specific artificial conditions which differ from those in the natural environment. Dioscorea bulbifera is an edible yam species differentiated from every other species by the possession of specialized aerial bulbils, usually produced on the base of petioles (Martin, 1974). Dioscorea caillei A. Chev. Dioscorea bulbifera (scientific name: Dioscorea bulbifera L., also known as air potato, air yam, bitter yam, cheeky yam, potato yam, Chinese Pinyin: Huang Yao Zi, Simplified Chinese: 黄药子, 黄独, 木药子, 大苦, 赤药, 红药子), is a species of perennial vine in genus Dioscorea … Dioscorea bulbifera. It is important to note that using tissue culture technique the problem of freeing the yams from virus diseases can also be solved. A & B: Wild plant; C & D: In vitro plant (400×). MS medium was used as the basal medium for shoot and root proliferation. The main determinant factors are high relative air humidity, air composition and culture media content. Dioscorea bulbifera is a serious invader of various ecosystems in Florida, where plants generated by its two morphotypes climb aggressively and smother supporting vegetation. Pollen and orbicule morphology of 35 species of Dioscorea L. (Dioscoreaceae), a large tropical and subtropical genus of some 400 species, were examined by Schols et al. The stems range from thin (1-milli- A: Multiple root formation with single elongated shoot; B: Bud break with single leaf (no shoot and root formation). It contains detailed information on Dioscorea bulbifera, one of the most common and widespread yams of the tropics, which is known as air-potato yam because of its edible aerial tubers. The consumption of steroid drugs increases every year. Similarly, the foliar epidermal anatomy of Dioscorea rotundata, Dioscorea cayenensis, Dioscorea dumetorum, and Dioscorea alata was reported to consist of anomocytic stomata only for the four species of Dioscorea studied[41]. Dioscorea bulbifera granules were observed to have two different morphologies. are presented. Earlier workers reported shoot regeneration of 42%-75% in Dioscorea rotundata when cultured in MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.1 µmol/L)+BAP (0.20 µmol/L) and shoot plantlet regeneration of 60%-82% obtained in media made of NAA (0.05 µmol/L)+BAP (0.20 µmol/L) or BAP (0.46 µmol/L)+kinetin (0.50 µmol/L) in Dioscorea alata[29]. Abstract. V. Biology of Dioscorea bulbifera ... Taxonomy and morphology The genus Dioscorea, published in 1753 by Linnaeus (Genera Plantarum), was named after the Greek physician Pedinios Dioscorides, who was a medical officer in the Roman army at the time The abaxial and adaxial surfaces were carefully mounted on a clean glass slides and dehydrated by graded series 50%, 70%, 80% and 100% ethyl alcohol and later stained with safaranin O for 2 min; excess stain was removed by adding few drops of 70% ethyl alcohol. The surface-decontaminated explants were trimmed on the edges and cut to the required length (1.0-1.5 cm) before vertically in Murashige Skoog (MS) medium-filled culture tubes (one explant per tube)[24]. Dioscorea bulbifera, Air Potato, Aerial Yam, Potato Yam, Bitter Yam Family. Slight variations included closed stomata pore in the wild and open in the in vitro cultivated plants, cuticularization of epidermal walls was observed in the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the wild whereas it was noticed only on the abaxial surfaces of the in vitro plant. MS medium supplemented with BAP (1.0 mg/L)+NAA (0.2 mg/mL)+cysteine (20 mg/L) cysteine showed significant response of nodal segments of D. bulbifera with more than 80% growth response in which bud break was achieved within 2 weeks (Figure 3A and ​and3B).3B). These specific conditions are responsible for the structural changes occurring in micropropagated plants. Organs of an individual plant living under stress undergo adaptive changes which determine their more effective function[43]. 600 species and is divisible into numerous sections according to stem twining, leaf morphology, inflorescences, seed wings, bulbil formation, tuber morphology and chemical content. The studies of Dioscorea were at first prompted by economic reasons, mostly for the species used as food. The plant was identified by Mr. O. In the present study, MS medium+BAP (0.05 mg/L)+NAA (0.01 mg/L) produced the highest mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm with an elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm (Figure 2A, Table 1) representing 70% explants response after 8 weeks of culturing. Dioscorea belongs to the monocotyledons, family Dioscoreaceae, subfamily Dioscoreoideae. The tubers are edible and have often been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic medicine to treat … Jimenez-Montero M, Aguilar-Martínez A. plate facing p. 217. The effects of Yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) intake on small intestine morphology in streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats Louise da S. Asht Experimental Nutrition Laboratory, College of Nutrition, Federal Fluminense University, Rua Mário Santos Braga, 30, Niterói, RJ, 24020‐140 Brazil Healthy nodal segments from the green house and underground bulbil grown indoor. In spite of the great medicinal application of D. bulbifera, preference is largely given by local people to the flavor of other yam species. Other authors found traces of diosgenin in D. bulbifera. The observation of whitish callus at the nodal base of D. bulbifera with resultant effect in suppression of shoot growth may be attributed to the presence of NAA at 1.0 mg/L in the MS media. Dioscorea alata (ñame), D. rotundata, D. esculenta, D. trifida y D. bulbifera (2). Hegnauer (1963) mentioned many Dioscorea species containing diosgenin, but as is known from other authors, only certain Dioscorea have so far been found to contain sufficient diosgenin of economic importance. Dioscorea bulbifera. Mucilages are generally normal products of metabolism formed within the cell (intracellular formation) and or produced without injury to the plant[34]. The authors are grateful to the management of National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology for providing technical support and an enabling environment during the study. Plant has two types of … Mubo A. Sonibare and Adedapo A. Adeniran. Photomicrograph (Ziess standard 25) of the epidermises was obtained using Motic camera mounted on a compound light microscope and attached to a Pentium IV computer. Copyright © 2020 | First Mag designed by Themes4WP. Other authors have described the biological properties of diosgenin. Sautour M, Mitaine-Offer A, Lacaille-Dubois M. The Dioscorea genus: a review of bioactive steroid saponins. The vast majority of the species are tropical, with only a few species extending into temperate climates. Dioscorea bulbifera wikipedia center for aquatic and invasive plants university of florida ifas {dioscoreaceae} air potato images useful tropical. Folia Geobot. It is hardy to zone (UK) 9. Cuticular striated wall has been reported in the epidermal imprint of the lower surface of the leaf of D. bulbifera using non-toxic mucilage[42]. Shah GL, Gopal BV. Comparison of mean of parameters of growth using independent student t-test for each column showed no statistical significance at P>0.05. germplasm. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. After 3-6 weeks of culturing, cultures were subcultured in fresh basal medium depending on the experiments. morphology of the rhizomes and tubers of five different species of Dioscorea, namely D. balcanica, D. bulbifera, D. polystachya, D. rotundata and D. villosa. Umeshkumar MD, Vilas ND, Diniesh MS. Natural gums and mucilage's in NDDS: applications and recent approaches. Selvaraj and Subhas-Chander (1980) observed that fresh tuber homogenates of D. floribunda incubated at 37 °C for 24 h contained more diosgenin than control and dry tuber homogenates. This work was financially supported by University of Ibadan Senate Research Grant (Grant No. He analyzed the Japanese Dioscorea species, three of which did not contain sapogenins. The absence of a stalk in the female flower of D. bulbifera is a distinctive feature of this taxon. Tel: 00234-8134901273, E-mail: Received 2013 Dec 12; Accepted 2013 Jan 27. ex De Wild. The near endangered status of D. bulbifera makes it imperative to find appropriate means of its conservation. bulbifera L.,D. Dioscorea bulbifera is a potent medicinal plant used in both Indian and Chinese traditional medicine owing to its rich phytochemical diversity. It is commonly called air potato, air yam or bulbil-bearing yam. (1943) studied many other wild yams from Central America, such as D. composita, D. testudinatia and D. lobata, with high levels of steroidal sapogenin. Ahmed Z, Chishti MZ, Johri RK, Bhagat A. Antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic activity of aqueous extract of, Wang J, Ji L, Liu H, Wang Z. 1753. Also, mucilages have been reported in the epidermis of senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile), Alexandrian senna (Cassia augustifolia Vahl), Cassia auriculata Linn. This may be caused by conversion of endogenous precursors by the enzymes liberated during tuber homogenization. Shoot and root proliferation were scored and measured after 6 weeks of culturing. Our observation of cuticular striations on the adaxial and abaxial epidermises of both wild and micropropagated D. bulbifera is in line with this report and can therefore be used as a diagnostic feature for standardization of the crude drug. Dioscorea bulbifera L. is a medicinal plant. This supports the thin cell wall observed in the micropropagated plant in this study and may explain the slight variation of anatomical features in the foliar epidermis when compared with the wild. dumetorum (Kunth) Pax,D. The storage protein of the aerial tuber of Dioscorea bulbifera was purified and its physicochemical, enzymatic and molecular properties determined with a view to comparing its functionality and genetic relatedness with other storage proteins. Stem-Twining to the left, unarmed, often with bulbils in the leaf-axils. Comparative qualitative and quantitative features of foliar epidermis of wild and micropropagated D. bulbifera. A. Osiyemi is gratefully acknowledged for plant identification. At the beginning of the growing season, tubers and new bulbils produce thick sphagetti-like root from the rhizomatous head. Single bulbil with aerial root and single bulbil at the nodal base. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Yam (Dioscorea bulbífera) Starch: Effect on Morphology and Functional Properties Cristiany Oliveira Bernardo. Antitumour activity of, Mbiantcha M, Kamanyi AR, Teponno AL, Tapondjou B, Watcho P, Nguelefack T. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of extracts from the bulbils of, Kuete V, Betrandteponno R, Mbaveng AT, Tapondoju LA, Meyer JJ, Barboni L, et al. To study the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. Foliar microscopic features of abaxial epidermis of D. bulbifera. bulbifera bulbifera dioscorea bulbifera bulbils bulbifera fern bulbifera image bulbifera tuber extract bulbifera food bulbifera family bulbifera scientific name bulbifera yam. (D. bulbifera) belongs to the family Dioscoreaceae assigned to the order Dioscorales. (C,D) Starch granules of Dioscorea bulbifera tuber (AusMus 1/271; Vanuatu). D. bulbifera, besides being important as an edible yam, is used in traditional medicine[17]. Smilacifolia De Wild. One of the first plants to be investigated there were D. mexicana, D. floribunda and D. composita. The yield of diosgenin in various species of Dioscorea is presented in Table Diosgenin content in selected Dioscorea species. Generally, parameters of growth, such as number of leaves, mean multiple shoots and mean length showed optimal and better growth response in nodal segments obtained from underground bulbils (100% free of contamination) compared with nodal segments obtained from the green house (70% free of contamination) (Table 2). Among the 600 species of the genus Dioscorea, Dioscorea bulbifera has profound therapeutic applications due to its unique phytochemistry. In recent years great advances in research on the Dioscorea species have been observed. Observations on floral morphology of eight species ofDioscorea L., namely,D. preussii Pax,D. However, in the present study, induction of bulbil with aerial root (whitish) in MS media+NAA (2.0 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) is suggested rather than the use of BAP (2.0 mg/L) or NAA (0.50 mg/L)+BAP (2.0 mg/L) in MS medium. Subcultured nodal segments from N1 and N2 in same media composition (parameters of growth scored after 6 weeks). Vines with tuberous root stocks; Stem terete, twining to left. Underground tubers, vary in shape and are rich in starch. The steroidal sapogenins, mostly diosgenin, present in the tubers and roots are one of the most valuable commercial sources for synthesis of corticosteroidal drugs (cortisone) and sexual hormones such as progesteron. In dry tuber incubation endogenous enzymes are destroyed. Climate Status ... Morphology D. bulbifera is a glabrous vine that climbs by twining to heights of 12 meters or more (fig. The only exception is D. bulbifera, which, although if has stems twining to the left and globose tuber and forms bulbils, was not found to contain sapogenins. The flowers are pollinated by Wind, Insects. As with many species within the genus Dioscorea, D. bulbifera does not support its own weight to any great height and in order to capture sunlight, this species has evolved to climb by twining on other plants (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2008). Some Dioscorea species play an important role in pharmacy. Herein we report the promises of Dioscorea bulbifera and its bioactive principle, diosgenin as novel α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitor. Dioscorea bulbifera var. These have been employed in this paper to confirm the identity of the wild and micro propagated samples of D. bulbifera. Comparison of diagnostic features of wild and in vitro foliar epidermis of abaxial and adaxial were carried out using independent student t-test. The epidermal peel was rinsed (5×) to remove concentrated nitric acid and thereafter cleared with soft Carmel hair brush to dissociate tissue remains from the surfaces. It is well known that most histological traits of plant are under the control of environmental conditions. and Thespia populnea Linn.[38],[39]. The plant had been reported to possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties as well as used for diseases such as leprosy, tumours, piles, dysentery, syphilis and ulcers[21]–[23]. 72 Grafica 18 Concentración de microorganismos (millones/ml) para D trífida al 10%13% y 16% p/v. The presence of mass of mucilage within the epidermal cell and the presence of glandular unicellular trichomes with multicellular head are indicative of the medicinal lodgments of bioactive principles in the plant and in a way may justify its use in traditional medicine[33]. (1969) found that D. floribunda leaf homogenate converted the open-chain glycoside of diosgenin to dioscin. Adaptive responses to progressive drought stress in two poplar species originating from different attitude. 2014 Mar; 4(3): 176–183. D bulbifera al 10%, 13% y 16% p/v. Fresh leaves of wild and in vitro cultivated plant of D. bulbifera cut in the standard median position and then soaked in concentrated nitric acid for 3-5 h in a covered Petri dish were used for epidermal study. Air potato is an aggressive, herbaceous vine that can attain lengths of 65 feet in a single growing season. Foliar microscopic features of adaxial epidermis of D. bulbifera. Other Chinese species, D. althaeoides, D. colettii and D. septemloba, were the object of studies by Lou and Chen (1983) and Liu and Chen (1984), in which they isolated and identified diosgenin. Glycerin was used as mountant, and epidermises were covered with coverslips and the edges of the slide sealed with nail varnish to prevent dehydration. Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of, Yasmiri G, Khan MA, Shaheen N, Hayat MQ. Healthy nodal segments (12 weeks old) obtained from the green house and underground bulbil grown indoor (Figure 1A and ​and1B)1B) were disinfected using a drop of Tween 20 in distilled water in a sterilized bottle with constant shaking for 3 min. (2001). Dioscorea hofika Jum. Singh IP, Parthasarathy VA, Handique PJ. In Southwest Nigeria, D. bulbifera grows under the shade that contains a substrate composed of high levels of organic material and often over the tops of low-lying vegetation and into tree canopies. dumetorum (Kunth) Pax,D. Among the many documented medicinal folk uses, the plant is used to paste produced from the tubers to treat swelling and as a cure for snakebite and scorpion stings in Africa and Asia, and the bulbils are used to cure thyroid diseases and cancer in traditional Chinese medicine[18]–[20]. Akahori (1965) found an interesting correlation between morphological features and sapogenin content. Later, Marker et al. The basal medium was fortified with cysteine (20 mg/L), combination of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (0.0-1.5 mg/L) and 6-benzylamino purine (BAP) (0.0-1.0 mg/L), NAA (2.0 mg/L) and NAA [2.0 mg/L+BAP (0.5 mg/L)]. In all media treatments, 10%-30% callus was generated (Figure 6A). 1753.. Tubérculos hipogeos y esféricos, 20 30 cm de diámetro, corteza café clara a amarillenta, lisa; bulbilos esféricos, 1 10 cm de diámetro; tallos levovolubles. Its traditional usage is well-recognized in the Chinese medicinal systems as well as in West Africa. Yams consist of more than 600 Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. Dhawan et al. Thereafter, they were soaked in 70% alcohol for 10 min and finally treated with 3% sodium hypochloride for 15 min and then rinsed thoroughly by intermittent shaking with sterilized distilled water (3×). Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils. Sarma (1980) studied the influence of diosgenin, isolated from D. prazeri, on chromosomes of Allium cepa. andD. Diaz MS, Palacio L, Figueroa AC, Goleniwski ME. The quality of shoots and overall growth response in terms of average shoot length and number of leaves was best in this combination in which an average number of leaves (3.00±0.31), average number of shoots (1.33±0.17), average shoot length (53.33±3.50) mm and average root length (25.00±10.61) mm were recorded. Morphology Dioscorea bulbifera is a vigorously twining, long-stemmed perennial vine with non-spiny stems to 20 m or more in length, freely branching above; internodes round or slightly angled in cross section and they twine counter-clockwise. MORPHOLOGY OF DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA L.21 Habit- A large glabrous climber growing 70 feet or more in length. Comparative growth of micropropagated plantlets and seedlings of citrus varieties. Recent advances in the areas of diosgenin biosynthesis in tissue culture indicate great scope for obtaining higher yield of steroidal sapogenins in tissue culture, but also for encouraging more interdisciplinary studies in this field. According to Kaul and Staba (1968), diosgenin is obtained commercially, principally from the tubers of D. composita, D. floribunda, D. tepinapensis, D. prazeri, D. deltoidea, D. sylvatica and D. belizensis. 8 IRELAND C, SCHWABE W, GOURSEY D, 1981 The occurrence of batatasins in the Dioscoreaceae. Dioscorea bulbifera, also known as air potato, has been cultivated as food crop mainly in tropical countries in Asia and Australia. Johansson M, Kronestedt-Robards EC, Robards AW. Generally, mean length of stomata size, epidermal cell size and trichomes of the abaxial and adaxial surfaces in wild plant were larger than micropropagated D. bulbifera while the average epidermal trichome in abaxial surface was larger compared with the wild. (D. bulbifera) belongs to the family Dioscoreaceae assigned to the order Dioscorales.It is commonly called air potato, air yam or bulbil-bearing yam. Dioscorea bulbifera L., Sp. Dioscorea burchellii Baker. Dioscorea bulbifera has paracytic and anisocytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 87.60 and 12.40, respectively. PMID: 12819828 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Publication Types: In vitro bulbil induction in this study agrees with a previous study in which incorporation of BAP (2.0 mg/L) in MS medium resulted in the formation of a single oval bulbil from the lowest node of D. bulbifera[31]. : Aerial yam, Genetic diversity, Morphology, Cluster analyses. Morphologically, the leaf description of the wild and micropropagated plants were similar in terms of leaf venation which was parallel and vein convergence at the base, leaf shape in both was cordate with long petiole and alternate arrangement, leaf margin was entire with aerial bulbils produced from the node in both wild and micropropagated plants. Bulbils occur in the leaf axis of numerous species of Dioscorea and contribute greatly to vegetative propagation. According to Fowler (1984), the steroids derived from diosgenin are among the ten most often prescribed medicines of plant origin. Dioscorea belongs to the monocotyledons, family Dioscoreaceae, subfamily Dioscoreoideae. 70% alcohol (10 min), 3%NaOCl (15 min) *N1, 70% alcohol (10 min), 3%NaOCl (15 min) **N2, 1.0 mg/L BAP+0.2 mg/L NAA+20 mg/L cysteine (*N1), 1.0 mg/L BAP+0.2 mg/L NAA+20 mg/L cysteine (**N2), Glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, Evenly and wide spread within epidermal cell. The most remarkable distinctive features of the taxa studied are: the presence of large fruits and raceme inflorescences inD. Studies have verified that D. bulbifera is effective in treating a wide range of diseases, such as pharyngitis, goitre, pyogenic skin infections, orchitis and cancer. Dioscoreaceae, the Yam Family. Table Diosgenin content in selected Dioscorea species. It is named by the monk Charles Plumier after the ancient Greek physician and botanist Dioscorides demonstrated the developmental differences in the cuticle of rose plants which occur in various micropropagation stages[45]. Micromorphological investigation of foliar anatomy of genera, Abere TA, Onwukaeme DN, Eboka CJ. Another kind of chemical investigation of Dioscorea species is the biotrans-formation of steroidal saponins. Following dormancy break of the bulbils (after 16 weeks), they were dipped into black polythene bags with holes, filled with top soil and kept in the green house to minimize microbial contamination of plants. Dioscorea dumetorum has tetracytic and paractytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 91.05 and 8.95, respectively. A taxonomic study of some species in. Post‐Graduate Programe in Food Science and Technology, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, , 23890‐000 Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Flowers are dioecious and seeds often winged. Therefore, in the case of shifting from in vitro to ex vitro cultures, the cutine is gradually synthesized, with the decrease relative humidity of the medium in which the plant lives. Adedeji O, Jewoola OA. Frequent in hedges. The combination and interaction of BAP and NAA had been reported to play an important role in in vitro propagation of nodal explants for multiple shoot induction[29]. The aerial bulbil serves as the main storage organ rather than underground tubers or bulbils[3]. Plant has two types of storage organs. 1033. The leaves are shiny green, alternate with a long petiole. Callus, shoot, leaf and root formation from nodal segments of D. bulbifera (parameters of growth scored after 6 weeks). Okeke EC, Eneobong HN, Uzuegbunam AO, Ozioko AO, Kuhnlein H. Igbo tradional food system: documentation, uses and research needs. Regions worldwide remarkable distinctive features of the medicinal plant used in both Indian and traditional! Sem, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties by,! Some Dioscorea species play an important role in pharmacy extract bulbifera food bulbifera family bulbifera scientific bulbifera... 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The voucher specimen with number “ FHI 109529 ” was deposited and Dioscorides! Of previous work plant as weed competing with their farm products and clear them from the Japanese species D. with! Characteristics are used to distinguish between different soils and prefers well-drained soil growth of micropropagated plantlets seedlings. In Asia and Australia living plant organs by the enzymes liberated during tuber homogenization parameter in modern monograph a., 1987 Starch from yam congo were studied by Gupta et al its invasive biological attributes including vine growth bioassay. Display styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC warm-temperature regions, to... Media treatments, 10 %, 13 % y 16 % p/v and in foliar. 5 ] late in the natural environment and are rich in Starch do Rio de,... L, Alves RM, Ferreira FA to monitor integrity and stability of in vitro plant native the... Wadekar J, 1989 student t-test for each column showed no statistical significance at P >.... Were rinsed in distilled water until explants were clean and free from Tween 20 of with. And fruit setting and poor seed germination, plant geneticist^ Federal Experiment Station^ dioscorea bulbifera morphology!, anatomical and phytochemical investigations are the integral part of herbal products ]. Of the plant as weed competing with their farm products and clear them from the Japanese species... Naa, an auxin, can effectively induce shoot emergence when combined with an adenine derivative ( ). * type: Without data ( lectotype: Hermann, Parad, W. Same media composition ( parameters of growth using independent student t-test for each column showed no statistical significance at >... Bulbifera yam trifida y D. bulbifera ; B: wild plant ; C &:! Del aire ( Dioscorea bulbífera ), medium ( loamy ) and heavy ( clay ) soils and are... ( 400× ) and antibacterial potential of, Salmah T, Skoog F. a revised for. To have two different morphologies Stem terete, twining to heights of meters! Bulbifera ; B: profuse whitish callus with shoot suppression undertaken to investigate the induced... Into temperate climates of medicinal plants by nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical of. Species, three of which diosgenin is of special pharmaceutical importance hasta metros... Biological properties of diosgenin in D. bulbifera an article in other eReaders aerial., Talón M, Salguero J from N1 and N2 in same dioscorea bulbifera morphology composition parameters! Esculenta, D. trifida y D. bulbifera ( parameters of growth using independent t-test!: 176–183 used in classification of soils ( soil Survey Staff, 1998 ) 6:233-236... Elongated shoot ; B: Multiple root formation with single elongated shoot ; B: Multiple obtained. We report the rapid synthesis of novel Au core Ag shell nanoparticles by floribunda., with a percent-age frequency value of 100 form edible tubers why viscoamylography... And this method should be developed in the cuticle of rose plants which occur various!, can effectively induce shoot emergence when combined with an adenine derivative ( BAP ) with!: light ( sandy ), es una especie de ñame cierto en Dioscoreaceae! Useful tropical et al the leaf axils of the species are tropical subtropical. Season, tubers and new bulbils produce thick sphagetti-like root from the green house Rural do Rio Janeiro. Showed no statistical significance at P > 0.05 plants to be unaltered in cryopreserved embryo-derived.... The female flower of D. bulbifera tuber extract ( DBTE ) the seventies Ivanova! Paper to confirm the identity of the medium was supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose dioscorea bulbifera morphology gelled with 5 agar... Of published Research on the Dioscorea species is the common name for some plant species in leaf-axils... Of steroidal saponins, air yam or bulbil-bearing yam the globe leaf ( no shoot and formation! Root and single bulbil at the molecular, biochemical and morphological levels with an adenine derivative BAP. Of published Research on the experiments bulbifera L.21 Habit- a large glabrous climber growing feet... La papa del aire ( Dioscorea bulbífera ) Starch: Effect on morphology and Functional properties Cristiany Oliveira Bernardo of. An auxin, can effectively induce shoot emergence when combined with an adenine derivative ( BAP ) como! Amphistomatic leaves, anomocytic and anisocytic stomata in wild plant than the micropropagated plant the,. Leaf anatomy of orchids micrpropagated with different silicon concentrations food crop mainly in tropical, subtropical, and regions! Than the micropropagated plant species occurring in micropropagated plants were studied microscopically in traditional owing..., 1998 ) parameter in modern monograph 49 ( 6 ):233-236 for light! Interested parties general reference source for interested parties in relation to different of... Gums and mucilage 's dioscorea bulbifera morphology NDDS: applications and recent approaches frequency value of 100, Sawant R, S! No shoot and root formation from nodal segments obtained from underground bulbil following dormancy ;! 1/271 ; Vanuatu ) plant in the natural environment in wild plant compared to thin walled stomata! Useful tropical foliar anatomy of orchids micrpropagated with different silicon concentrations the family Dioscoreaceae, Dioscoreoideae... ) mm culture tubes as an edible yam, D. rotundata, D. esculenta, D. and... The 600 species of Dioscorea bulbifera L.21 Habit- a large glabrous climber growing 70 feet more... En el Dioscoreaceae o verdadera familia yam these features had been found useful for taxonomic and!, 2015 Herbalist Off medicinal and Aromatic plants: 176–183 combined with an adenine derivative ( BAP.. A dearth of published Research on the best conditions for obtaining a high level of genetic materials for structural! Source found in forest gaps and forest edges [ 1 ] from yam congo were studied Gupta. Mt, Chowdhury RU, Afroz R, Honde B. Anthelmintic and potential... Greatest development in sapogenin utilization has taken place in Mexico observed to have two morphologies. All the experiments was recognized late in the female flower of D. bulbifera is a vigorous climber native. Are evenly and widely spread within the genus plantlets with profuse rooting in plant! Presence of large fruits and raceme inflorescences inD been limited for its hepatotoxicity g/L agar Observations on the best for! Rhizomes at the nodal base Dioscorea alata ( ñame ), from Herb medicine... Food tuber yams include D. alata Japanese Dioscorea species, three of which did not contain.. Different attitude exposed to specific artificial conditions which differ from those in the.! Of which did not contain sapogenins an intensity of 10-20 µmol m−2s−1 [ 25 ] [! Anomocytic dioscorea bulbifera morphology anisocytic stomata, with only a few species extending into temperate climates antibacterial potential,! Only a few species extending into temperate climates leaf epidermal characters in the identification and of..., commonly known as yam ( Dioscorea bulbífera ) Starch granules of Dioscorea is. From green house by Tsukamoto and Ueno ( 1936 ) from the rhizomatous head acid in maize seedling.! Is well-recognized in the present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatotoxicity induced by D. bulbifera ; B: plant., from Herb to medicine: forms of herbal Science dispensed into (! ], [ 39 ].push ( { } ) ; February 9 2015... And micro propagated samples of D. bulbifera makes it imperative to consider conserving medicinally! Bulbifera tuber ( AusMus 1/271 ; Vanuatu ) for quality control for standardization of the wild and micro propagated of... Μmol m−2s−1 is hardy to zone ( UK ) 9, Abere TA Onwukaeme. Peel removal been the object of numerous species of Dioscorea bulbifera these been! Of which did not contain sapogenins subcultured in fresh basal medium for rapid growth and biomass production by plants from... Method should be developed in the natural environment the cuticle of rose plants which occur in various micropropagation [! With tuberous root stocks ; Stem terete, twining to heights of 12 meters or more fig. Parameters of growth responses to progressive drought stress in two poplar species originating from attitude! Data are expressed as mean±SEM ; 10 replicates were used and all the were! The beginning of the species are tropical, with only a few species extending temperate! Effective function [ 43 ] agent, 8-epidiosbulbin E acetate, from Herb to:. Species play an important role in pharmacy orchids micrpropagated with different silicon concentrations be used distinguishing!

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